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Jerky Made Easy. Tom Katen Cargill Ingredients Lynn Knipe Ohio State University OAMP Convention March 20, 2009. Steps to Producing Safe Jerky. Steps to Producing Safe Jerky. The use of water activity lowering humectants in the product formula. Apply low pH marinade.

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jerky made easy

Jerky Made Easy

Tom Katen

Cargill Ingredients

Lynn Knipe

Ohio State University

OAMP Convention

March 20, 2009

steps to producing safe jerky3
Steps to Producing Safe Jerky
  • The use of water activity lowering humectants in the product formula.
  • Apply low pH marinade.
  • Salmonella can adapt to surface drying if not destroyed early.
  • Drying to shelf stable water activity.
use of humectants to reduce water activity in dry meat products
Use of Humectants to Reduce Water Activity in Dry Meat Products
  • Water activity-lowering humectants can turn “Strips” into shelf stable Jerky.
  • Humectants reduce water activity without having to dry product so much.
use of humectants to reduce water activity in dry meat products5
Use of Humectants to Reduce Water Activity in Dry Meat Products
  • Which humectant could you use?
      • sugar, corn syrup, etc.
  • How much humectant would you need to add to reduce water activity?
norrish equation k values of common humectants
Norrish Equation K Values of Common Humectants


DE 43 -5.31 Mannose -2.28 ± 0.22

Glactose -2.24 ± 0.07 Xylose -1.54 ± 0.04

Glucose -2.25 ± 0.02 Sucrose -6.47 ± 0.06

Glucose -2.11 ± 0.11 PEG 400 -26.6 ± 0.8

Fructose -2.15 ± 0.08 PEG 600 -56 ± 2

Glycerol -1.16 ± 0.01 Citric Acid -6.17 ± 0.49

Mannitol -0.91 ± 0.27 Tartaric Acid -4.68 ± 0.5

Propylene Glycol -1 Malic Acid -1.82 ± 0.13

Alanine -2.52 ± 0.37 Glycine +0.87 ± 0.11

humectant effects on jerky quality
Humectant Effects on Jerky Quality
  • Darker jerky color with added sweeteners.

Godshall's Quality Meats


Jack Links

Uncle Mike’s

Best Beef

low ph marinade
Low pH Marinade
  • Low pH inactivates Salmonella.
      • Many marinades are not acidic.
  • Moist surface increases destruction of Salmonella during initial heat treatment.
salmonella lethality
Salmonella Lethality
  • Lethality treatment to destroy Salmonella on jerky surface must occur before drying of product.
  • Lethality and drying processes need to be separated to destroy Salmonella on the surface.
fsis compliance guidelines for jerky
FSIS Compliance Guidelines for Jerky
  • Need adequate lethality before drying step.
  • Salmonella can survive low humidity drying step prior to final cook step.
  • Drying temperatures are sometimes too low for adequate lethality.
validate lethality process
Validate Lethality Process
  • Appendix A - validated “safe harbor” times & temperatures, accepted by inspection personnel
  • Company or university challenge studies
  • ARS Pathogen Modeling Program
  • AMI Lethality Equation
appendix a
Appendix A
  • “Safe harbor” or guideline
      • Validated times/temperatures for Salmonella lethality
      • Accepted by inspection personnel
  • Not a regulatory requirement
  • Methods:
      • Oven maintained at 250°F or higher
      • Continuous introduction of steam (50% of time), closed oven (50% of time), or 90% humidity (25%, but not less than 1 hr.)
  • Based upon beef study; may be used with pork & poultry products
appendix a15
Appendix A
  • Assumes high humidity heat, during part of cooking process, unless: cooking in water, product stuffed into any casing (fibrous, moisture impermeable) or cook- in bag, direct heat applied by flame or grill.
university research or challenge studies
University Research or Challenge Studies
  • Your process must duplicate what was done in study.
      • same species, ingredients, cooking methods, etc.
  • Wisconsin Challenge Studies
      • Starter culture method
  • OSU Documentation Material
company challenge studies
Company Challenge Studies
  • Validate your procedures using your equipment.
      • best validation method
  • Possible to use challenge study results from larger companies & equipment suppliers.
  • Need to use pathogens or surrogates
      • Pathogens require separate processing and lab facilities
      • Surrogates - could be used in your facility, with your equipment.
ars pathogen modeling program
ARS Pathogen Modeling Program
  • Not intended to be the only means of validating the lethality of your cooking process.
ami lethality equation
AMI Lethality Equation
  • Need to enter D-value for species and fat content
  • Calculates lethality during come-up and cool down times.
  • Most valuable for small diameter products, with short cooking times.
validating the uniformity of your cooking procedures
Validating the Uniformity of Your Cooking Procedures.
  • I.e., find cold/ hot spots
      • Check cooking yield of jerky in multiple locations in oven.
      • Multiple temperature probes or pop-up indicators for larger products.
  • Balance smokehouse/oven, if needed.
      • damper adjustments
      • method of loading house/oven
increase rh in oven
Increase %RH in Oven
  • Steam line
  • Water/liquid smoke atomizer nozzle - connect to hot water line
  • Humidifier concept with cloth & water reservoir.
  • Flood oven floor with water.
  • Reduce fan speed (if possible) to increase % RH.

Photo Courtesy of Red Arrow

seal oven to prevent loss
Seal Oven to Prevent Loss
  • Close dampers
  • Add rubber gaskets to dampers to increase tightness of damper seal
      • except in case of gas-fired houses.
monitor humidity level achieved
Monitor Humidity Level Achieved
  • Wet bulb probe/sock.
  • Use humidity probes.
  • Make own wet bulb probe.
      • Add wet bulb sock to temperature probe, with sock dipped in pan of water.

Home-Made Wet-Bulb Probe

Cotton Cloth

Pan of Water

water activity a w vs mpr
Water Activity (Aw) vs. MPR
  • MPR of 0.75:1 remains as a “standard of identity” for labeling of jerky.
  • Jerky Compliance Guideline suggests a aW (critical limit) of 0.80 for a shelf stable jerky.
  • aW as critical limit vs. verification procedure.
water activity a w
Water Activity (aW)
  • Available water for pathogen growth.
  • Minimum aW for growth:
      • C. perfringens: 0.97
      • E. coli: 0.95
      • L. monocytogenes: 0.92
      • S. aureus: 0.83
u wisconsin validation studies
U. Wisconsin Validation Studies
  • Need wet bulb temperature at or above 125ºF early in process…
      • product internal temperature equal to WB temperature early in process.
      • kill pathogens while strips are moist enough to achieve high lethality
  • …followed by drying process

Shelf-Stability Table

SS = Shelf Stable

2005 Food Code

osu restructured jerky test
OSU Restructured Jerky Test
  • 140˚F WB & 130˚F DB for 4 to 6 hrs.
  • 1/8” = 44.4% yield, aw of 0.76 in 4 hrs.
  • 3/16” = 48.4% yield, aw of 0.84 in 6 ½ hrs.
  • ¼ “ = 46% yield, aw of 8.8 in 10 hrs.
summary use multiple hurdles
Summary: Use Multiple Hurdles
  • Formulate to discourage pathogens.
      • Low pH marinades
      • Humectants
  • Destroy Salmonella early in heat process.
  • Dry to aW of 0.80 or less.

Tom KatenCargill IngredientsWilshire, OH(219)670-2233Tom_Katen@cargill.comLynn KnipeProcessed Meats Extension SpecialistOhio State University(614)