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CSIS-390 Some Web History. Dr. Eric Breimer. Syllabus. Google “Eric Breimer” Click on first link Click on CSIS-390 Click on Syllabus. History. Before designing and developing web pages and web applications it is important to know how it all came about…. Internet World Wide Web (WWW).

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csis 390 some web history

CSIS-390Some Web History

Dr. Eric Breimer

  • Google “Eric Breimer”
  • Click on first link
  • Click on CSIS-390
  • Click on Syllabus
  • Before designing and developing web pages and web applications it is important to know how it all came about…
  • Internet
  • World Wide Web (WWW)
are these things the same
Are these things the same?
  • Internet
  • World Wide Web
arpa net
  • ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • 1968, Cold War, Military Applications
arpa net1
  • Originally, Custom/Tailor-made network applications for sharing data and messages 1968-1973
  • 1971 Email concept developed
    • Person can have an identifier ebreimer@network_name
    • Virtual mailbox
  • By 1973 Email was 75% of the ARPAnet traffic
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was developed in 1973
    • General/Generic service concept
arpa net internet
  • Transition Period 1971-1983
  • Packet Switching developed and perfected
    • Instead of point-to-point persistent connections
    • Robust, fault-tolerant, efficient, survivable
  • Network of Networks realized on a large scale
    • The ability to connect different types of networks TCP/IP
early internet 1983 1989
Early Internet 1983-1989
  • No web browsers, no web pages at all…
  • Only…
    • Email
    • FTP (document and image sharing)
    • Early message board system (BB systems)
    • Custom data transfer applications
      • Banking
      • Early business to business E-commerce
in 1989 came the www
In 1989 came the WWW
  • The concepts existed, but one man implemented the concepts and made them real…
  • WWW concepts
    • Hypertext concept – Documents can have links to other documents, just click the text
    • URL concept – Documents, computers, virtual mailboxes, networks can all have uniform identifier to help locate them
tim berners lee tbl
Tim Berners-Lee (TBL)
  • He invented the WWW in the sense that he put together a bunch of “good ideas” and implemented…
    • The first web browser
    • The first web server
  • In the process he proposed and developed
    • HTML
    • The URL concept
before the www finding stuff was hard
Before the WWW, finding stuff was hard
  • To find documents or data on the Internet you had to
    • Know numeric IP addresses to locate FTP servers
    • Login anonymously or with a user account
    • Know the folder hierarchy and file name of the document/data.
  • People would share this information via Email.
    • The idea of just browsing the Internet was silly, you just couldn’t do it.
    • If you didn’t have connections, you had no idea what was out there…
understanding the www
Understanding the WWW
  • HTTP instead of FTP
    • Web Browser instead of FTP client
    • Web Server instead of FTP server
  • URLs instead of numeric IP addresses
  • Clicking Hyperlink instead of navigating through folder hierarchies
  • Universal/Standard document formatting HTML instead of proprietary documents Word, doc, docx, pdf, etc.
are these things the same1
Are these things the same?


  • Nuts and bolts
  • Hardware
  • TCP/IP
  • Packet Switching
  • Network of Networks concept

World Wide Web

  • Content layer of Internet
  • Software
  • HTTP
  • URLs
  • Hyperlinks
internet vs www
Internet vs. WWW
  • Terms used interchangably by general public and media
  • You should know that
    • The WWW is a framework built “on top of” the Internet. The framework includes protocols for sharing data, standards for formatting data, and conventions for locating data. (The boat)
    • The Internet is really the “transport layer” of the WWW. (The river)
www matures 1989 1995
WWW Matures 1989-1995
  • 1989 TBL invents first web browser and server
  • 1991 Al Gore passes Gore Bill, which helps pave the way $$$ for future development
  • 1993 Mosaic (first good graphical web browser) is born
  • 1993 The National Science Foundation (NSF) creates the InterNIC, which centralizes the control of URL and domain names
  • 1995 NSFnet(formally ARPAnet) becomes research only network
    • Internet traffic starts to get routed through a commercial backbone (operated by AT&T, Sprint, and others)
commercialization period 1995 2000
Commercialization Period 1995-2000
  • 1995 – Netscape become a household name
    • Sells web server software…gives away browser for free
    • Reached almost 90% market share by 1996
  • 1995 – 1996 Microsoft scrambles to come out with competing software (Internet Explore, IIS Web Server)
  • 1996-1999 – Browser Wars between Microsoft and Netscape
    • HTML is pushed to the limit
    • Browser plug-ins developed, Flash, RealMedia, etc.
  • 1997-2000 – E-commerce Commercial Explosion
    • Amazon, E-bay, Online Stock Trading, MP3 trafficking, etc.
browser wars 1996 1999
Browser Wars 1996-1999
  • Microsoft (Internet Explorer) and Netscape compete to be the #1 browser.
    • In ’96 Netscape dominated
    • By ‘99 Internet Explorer was #1
  • Microsoft Integrated IE into the Windows OS and it was often forced upon people as the default browser
    • Microsoft paid billions in lawsuit (EU mostly) but still won the war
  • Netscape makes its source code open, so developers can build upon it.
    • Leads to the Mozilla Foundation, which eventually develops Firefox.
  • In 2000, AOL buys out Netscape, which is was failing financially
    • This marks the end of the war and beginning of Microsoft’s dominance in the WWW.
browser wars significance
Browser Wars - Significance
  • Early competition pushed web browsers to the limit.
  • Browsers use to be simple client applications that could render HTML code.
  • Now browsers are heavy-weight applications (JavaScript, ActiveX, Flash plug-ins, etc.)
  • Microsoft’s recent dominance was terrible.
    • Proprietary, No regard for recognized standards