C&S563--#6. Models of Staff Development and Differentiated Supervision: A Vehicle to Promote Teacher Growth. Dennis Sparks and Susan Loucks-Horsley NSDC, 1990. Five Models of Staff Development. #1: Individually Guided Staff Development. Assumptions:
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Models of Staff Development
Differentiated Supervision: A
Vehicle to Promote Teacher Growth
Five Models of
Individuals can best judge their own learning needs and are capable of self-direction and self-initiated learning.
Adults learn most efficiently when they initiate and plan their learning activities.
Individuals will be most motivated when they select their own learning goals based on their personal assessment of their needs.
Reflection and analysis are central means of professional development.
Another observer can enrich reflection on one’s practice.
Both observer and observee can benefit by the process.
Phases of Activity:
Pre-conference, observation, data analysis, post-conference, assessment of process.
Many teachers see it as a form of evaluation
Identify a problem
Explore ways to collect data that may range from examining existing theoretical and research literature to gathering original classroom or school data.
Analyze and interpret data.
Make changes and gather and analyze new data.
Organizational support and/or technical assistance may be required throughout the phases of an inquiry activity.
* lacks collegiality
* lacks self-reflection
* does not direct professional growth
Green & Snyder (1996)
What is Wrong with Current Practice in Supervision
What Happens in a Traditional Supervisory Structure
* Teachers sometimes:
put on a “show”
dust off a “tried and true” lesson
weave teaching to demonstrate a current district initiative
* Supervisory consultations are often disconnected from real teaching
* because of some incompetent teachers, the system of remediation is applied to all
* ranking of teachers somehow relates to improved instruction
* without being watched, teachers will stop trying to improve
* teachers who are watched will provide better student learning than unwatched teachers
Assumptions of a Traditional Teacher Supervision Model
* 1 classroom visit per year is adequate
* certain instructional behaviors are always a sign of superior teaching
* certain instructional behaviors always result in learning for all students
* administrators know more or at least as much as teachers
Systematic Classroom Observation
Instructional Leadership Roles
Trainer of Trainers
Drop In Visits
(Adapted from Pajak)