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Contents. Peer Review Agronomy TMs, Manufacturers, EA, CSFOs Audience: Agronomists … and farmers What’s New Metaldehyde Catchment Plans Contractors…. New. Priorities 1. Failure to voluntarily reduce the levels of pesticides in water may result in restrictions on their use.

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contents
Contents
  • Peer Review
    • Agronomy TMs, Manufacturers, EA, CSFOs
  • Audience: Agronomists… and farmers
  • What’s New
    • Metaldehyde
  • Catchment Plans
  • Contractors…
priorities 1

New

Priorities 1

Failure to voluntarily reduce the levels of pesticides in water may result in restrictionson their use.

To ensure products remain available without further national or local restrictions, everyone needs to carefully plan and spread their use so as to minimise the risks to water.

  • Metaldehyde
    • Detected in water for the first time as analytical techniques have improved
    • Follow the NEW best practice guide
  • Isoproturon (IPU)
    • Continue to follow best practice and the decision tree
    • Do not exceed the 1500g/ha maximum dose
    • Use up all product by 30 June 2009
  • Chlorotoluron (CTU)
    • The loss of IPU and trifluralin puts increased pressure on CTU
  • Propyzamide and carbetamide
    • Best practice advice for keeping propyzamide and carbetamide out of water is challenging and may compromise weed control.
  • Mecoprop-p
    • This herbicide has been regularly detected in water and efforts must be renewed to ensure it does not get into water
  • Clopyralid
    • Up to 2007 clopyralid did not pose a significant issue, but has been recently detected in some catchments
    • Follow the NEW best practice guide

Discuss these priorities with a BASIS- registered adviser

priorities 2

New

Priorities 2
  • Safe disposal of unapproved products
  • Use a licensed waste-disposal contractor
  • Use www.wasterecycling.org.uk to identify a suitable contractor
  • Ensure any contractor taking any unapproved pesticides can transport them safely and that they will be disposed of in a safe manner
  • Last use dates
  • Simazine 31st December 2007
  • IPU 30 June 2009
  • Trifluralin 20th March 2009

Discuss these priorities with a BASIS- registered adviser

slide5

How to use this advice 1

  • Specified Catchments*
    • VI Pilot
      • Blythe
      • Cherwell
      • Leam
      • Staunton Harold
      • Stour
    • Catchment Sensitive Farming (CSF)
      • Little Ouse
      • Lugg
      • Teme
      • Waveney
      • Wensum
      • Wyre
      • Yare
      • Yorkshire Ouse, Nidd & Swale

New

New

Separated

  • This advice may be extended to other catchments identified as being a high priority for action on pesticides under the Water Framework Directive

New

slide6

How to use this advice 2

  • Review current priorities
  • Check that best practice advice is being followed:
    • Soil Management
    • Pesticide Filling and Handling
    • Pesticide Application
  • Review weed and pest control programme
    • Always use a BASIS-registered adviser to plan your crop protection programme and resistance management strategies
  • The above steps apply to all situations
  • Decision trees

National Decision Trees are available from the VI website, however special decision trees have been developed by the VI for use in specified catchments where pesticides are known to be reaching water and extra precautions are needed.

    • Decision Trees and Advice for Specified Catchments*
      • Metaldehyde Metazachlor
      • Chlorotoluron, Isoproturon Clopyralid
      • Mecoprop-p Carbetamide, Propyzamide
      • Grassland Sprays

Reworded

soil management
Soil management
  • Research
    • Current
    • Ongoing
    • Needed
  • No answers yet
soil management 1
Soil management 1

Well managed soils reduce risks of soil erosion and pesticide losses from surface run-off or in sediment. Manage soils to retain organic matter and protect structure. Ensure that water cannot run-off from the treated area onto another field, road, track or other feature from where it could directly enter a watercourse. Follow the Code of Good Agricultural Practice, Cross Compliance requirements and use the Soil Protection Review to reduce risks of erosion.

  • Check for pan presence and depth before sub-soiling*
  • Do not overwork the soil so that it becomes slaked or capped;
  • Tramlines should run across slopes where practical NOT down slopes leading to a watercourse;
  • Drill tramlines where possible;
  • 50% trash cover and rapid crop establishment can reduce the impact of raindrops which break down soil crumbs and can trigger soil erosion.

Risks can be reduced further by measures such as those listed below. These require long term planning.

  • Review rotations to avoid cropping practices and cultivations on soils and slopes which are at risk of erosion. This should be part of your Soil Protection Review.
  • On slopes over 5% (1 in 20) running for more than 200m, establish a beetle bank or at least 6m grass strip across the entire field. Locate this break where the slope changes;
  • Grass down valley bottoms leading to any watercourse.

Advice and training on soil management can be obtained from the Environment Agency’s “thinksoils” programme

Reworded

New

go tothinksoils

soil management 2
Soil management 2

Dry, Cracked or Saturated Soils

Ideal conditions for herbicide application are a dry soil profile with a moist surface

Dry Cracked Soils – Avoid applications of pesticides to soils that are dry and cracked as water carrying pesticides can move into the drains. Cultivations will help to break up the large cracks and reduce the direct passage of water carrying pesticides into drains. If soils are cracked wait until they have re-hydrated and cracks have sealed before applying pesticides.

Dry Soils – Risk of pesticide movement through soils that are dry but not cracked is lower. If soils are very light and heavy rain is imminent delay applications until the threat of heavy rain has passed

Saturated Soils – Saturated soils are more likely to suffer with run-off problems, especially along wheelings, resulting in the movement of pesticides off the field. Wait until drains have stopped flowing before applying pesticides. If heavy rains are forecast delay application.

*Sub-soiling

Sub-soiling and mole draining can improve soil structure and drainage by cracking soil pans, but can create large cracks which increase pesticide losses from the field (by-pass flow). Use a spade to check if there is a pan and its depth. If there is no pan do not sub-soil; if there is a pan cultivate just below the pan.

Reworded

filling and handling
Filling and handling

Organise filling and handling to prevent point source pollution

  • Choose formulations and packaging designs that minimise the risk of spills and splashes and ease container cleaning and disposal;
  • Check the sprayer is in good working order. Use the National Sprayer Testing Scheme (NSTS) and operator checklist;
  • Mixing and handling is best done on an impermeable surface where drainage is collected and drained to grass/soil (with Groundwater Authorisation) or via a lined biobed. (Subject to agreement from your local Environment Agency);
  • Do not use the field entrance as a filling point if it is adjacent to a watercourse or any area, such as a road, track or other feature, which could channel run-off water to a watercourse;
  • Use a bowser or separate storage tank and ensure the water supply is connected via a double check valve. Never take water direct from the mains, troughs, watercourses or ponds.
  • Never leave the sprayer unattended whilst filling;
  • Check for drips and leaks before leaving the mixing area;
  • Fill using the induction bowl or closed transfer system where available;
  • Pressure or triple wash containers and drain into the induction bowl. Rinse seals and lids over the induction bowl. Keep any cardboard clean.
  • Store empty containers safely and upright after use. Follow disposal contractor’s advice on segregating clean packaging material.

New

application
Application

Reworded

Apply carefully to protect water

  • Establish at least a 5m no-spray buffer-zone adjacent to any watercourse;
  • Do not spray if ground is waterlogged or frozen;
  • Do not spray if heavy rain is forecast;
  • Avoid conditions where spray drift can occur - use nozzles and a spray quality which reduce drift;
  • Do not overspray buffer zones & watercourses;
  • Spray headlands last to avoid driving over sprayed area and picking up mud and pesticides on tyres;
  • Spray tank washings on to the crop;
  • Wash the outside of the sprayer before leaving the field;
  • Clean mud from tyres before leaving the field, keep tyres as mud-free as possible; mud on tyres can carry pesticides out of the field;
  • Ensure all cleaning activities take place away from watercourses.

New

Re-ordered

slug pellets metaldehyde best practice advice

New

Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde Best Practice Advice

Slug pellets are pesticides. Keep pesticides out of water

  • Only apply pellets in conditions that you would spray in
  • Do not contaminate surface water, ditches or drains
  • Anyone applying slug pellets must be trained
  • Calibrate your applicator before use according to product and rate to be applied
  • Know your applicator spread width and switch off when turning on headlands
  • Test bait using chicken layers mash. Apply appropriate rate of slug pellets according to threshold
  • Do not apply slug pellets if heavy rain is imminent
  • Fill hoppers in field away from margins/water courses/hard surfaces
  • Clear-up all pellet spills immediately - no matter how small
  • Clean the applicator after each day’s use
  • Do not contaminate drains or watercourses when cleaning the applicator
  • Application equipment should be stored under cover
  • Do not leave packaged product in field unattended
  • Dispose of packaging and contaminated PPE through a licensed waste disposal contractor

One pellet in 10,000 litres water could be enough to exceed the drinking water standard(assuming 5% active ingredient pellet, 50,000 pellets per kg)

slug pellets metaldehyde
Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde

One pellet in 10,000 litres water could be enough to exceed the drinking water standard(assuming 5% active ingredient pellet, 50,000 pellets per kg)

33 slug pellets = 1 foil seal

15 Best Practice Commandments

slug pellets metaldehyde1
Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde

Slug pellets are pesticides. Keep pesticides out of water

  • Respect slug pellets as pesticides
    • Trained competent responsible staff
    • Apply pellets in conditions that you would spray in
    • If weather and ground conditions prevent spraying there is a temptation to go pelleting instead. DON’T DO IT. If you cannot spray don’t apply pellets.
    • Follow ‘Best Practice Advice’ on sticker
slug pellets metaldehyde2
Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde
  • Do not let pellets reach surface water, ditches or drains
  • Check your applicator spread width and switch off when turning on headlands
  • Do not apply slug pellets if heavy rain is imminent
calibration
Key factors:

Pellet characteristics: density, size and flowability

Spreader settings: flow rate, spread width, forward speed, pellet type, height

Slug pellets and applicators differ greatly.

Calibrate the applicator and check spread width

Every season and

Every time you change spreader settings

Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde

Calibration
  • Slug pellets should be applied at the correct rate, ensuring uniform distribution
clear up spills immediately no matter how small

Slug Pellets - Metaldehyde

Clear up spills immediately – no matter how small
  • Take care while filling the applicator to avoid spillages and fill over a plastic sheet
  • Split pellets should be cleaned up IMMEDIATELY and placed into the hopper for spreading at the approved rate
  • Ensure the risks to wildlife from split pellets are kept to a minimum
  • Use appropriate PPE when handling pellets
metazachlor

Separated from other OSR herbs

START

HERE

Metazachlor

Correct soil management and cultivation practice in the autumn can reduce losses of this compound to water (see ‘Soil Management). Review your cultivation practices and also when to apply products containing metazachlor with your BASIS registered adviser. Metazachlor is most effective when used early in the season pre-emergence of weeds.

See guidelines for use on cracked, dry or saturated soils

Maximum application rates:

Metazachlor

pre-emergence 1250g ai/ha

post-emergence 1000g ai/ha

Are the drains flowing or likely to flow in the next 14 days?

NO

Is the field bordered by a watercourse or could run-off reach a watercourse?

Check soil management advice

The risk of losses of this compound is increased when fields have been sub-soiled or mole-drained within the preceding six months

YES

YES

NO

Is field slope less than 5%

A 5% gradient is 1 metre in 20 metres

Moved

NO

YES

NO

Cross compliance guidelines require a 1m unsprayed buffer from the top of the bank of any watercourse

Is there at least a 5m grass strip adjacent to the watercourse?

See soil management advice

YES

High risk of pesticides reaching water.

Avoid application when heavy rainfall is forecast in the five days following application

NO

Apply product as advised by a BASIS registered adviser

YES

For further information visit www.voluntaryinitiative.org.uk

isoproturon and chlorotoluron

IPU Revocation: Approval for use and storage of all products containing IPU ends on 30 June 2009. The maximum dose is restricted to 1500g/ha

Isoproturon and Chlorotoluron

START

HERE

Reworded

When do you plan to apply?

If you are thinking of applying IPU or CTU between 31st Oct and 1st Feb work with your adviser to prepare a contingency weed control programme excluding these products

Pre 31st October or After 1st February

Follow advice for use on cracked, dry or saturated soils

The risk of losses of these compounds are increased when fields have been sub-soiled or mole-drained within the preceding six months

Are drains flowing or likely to flow within 14 days of application?

NO

Is the field bordered by a watercourse or could run-off reach a watercourse? Check soil management advice

YES

YES

YES

31st October – 1st February

Is field slope less than 5% (A 5% gradient is 1 metre in 20 metres)

YES

NO

YES

NO

Cross compliance guidelines require a 1m unsprayed buffer from the top of the bank of any watercourse

Is there at least a 5m grass strip adjacent to the watercourse?

See soil management advice

High risk of pesticides reaching water. DO NOT APPLY products containing IPU or CTU. Delay application to spring where practical. Consult a BASIS registered adviser

YES

NO

Isoproturon up to 1500g ai/ha or chlorotoluron up to 2000g ai/ha may be applied as advised by a BASIS registered adviser

New

For further information visit www.voluntaryinitiative.org.uk

mecoprop p autumn and spring use on arable crops

New

START

HERE

Mecoprop-p autumn and spring use on arable crops

When do you plan to apply?

Avoid applying mecoprop-p between 31st Oct (or 15th Nov see blue box) and 1st Feb. Work with your agronomist to prepare an alternative strategy for this product, delaying use where practical until spring

Reworded

Pre 31st October or After 1st February

31st October – 1st February

Follow advice for use on cracked, dry or saturated soils

The risk of mecoprop-p loss is increased when fields have been sub-soiled or mole-drained within the preceding six months

Are drains flowing or likely to flow within 14 days of application?

NO

  • Mecoprop-p (CMPP-P) Use
  • Use of mecoprop-p can be extended beyond 31st October until 15th November ONLY if the following criteria apply
  • Target weeds have not emerged by 31st October
  • and
  • Reduced rates of mecoprop-p are used, as recommended by a BASIS registered adviser

Is the field bordered by a watercourse or could run-off reach a watercourse? Check soil management advice overleaf

YES

YES

YES

Is field slope less than 5% (A 5% gradient is 1 metre in 20 metres)

NO

YES

NO

YES

Cross compliance guidelines require a 1m unsprayed buffer from the top of the bank of any watercourse

Is there at least a 5m grass strip adjacent to the watercourse? See soil management advice

High risk of pesticides reaching water. DO NOT APPLY mecoprop-p. Consider delaying application until spring Consult a BASIS registered adviser

YES

NO

Mecoprop-p may be applied as advised by a BASIS registered adviser

New

For further information visit www.voluntaryinitiative.org.uk

carbetamide and propyzamide
Carbetamide and Propyzamide

START

HERE

Correct soil management and cultivation practice in the autumn can reduce losses of these compounds to water (see ‘Soil Management ’). Review your cultivation practices and also when to apply these products with your BASIS registered adviser. Carbetamide and propyzamide are most effective in cool moist conditions.

Maximum application rates:

Carbetamide 2100g ai/ha

Propyzamide 850g ai/ha

Follow advice for use on cracked, dry or saturated soils

Warning

Best practice advice for keeping propyzamide and carbetamide out of water may compromise weed control. Failure to voluntarily reduce the levels of these pesticides in water may result in restrictions on their use.

Are the drains flowing or likely to flow in the next 14 days?

NO

New

Is the field bordered by a watercourse or could run-off reach a watercourse?

Check soil management advice

YES

YES

The risk of losses of these compounds is increased when fields have been sub-soiled or mole-drained within the preceding six months

NO

Is field slope less than 5%

A 5% gradient is 1 metre in 20 metres

NO

YES

NO

Cross compliance guidelines require a 1m unsprayed buffer from the top of the bank of any watercourse

Is there at least a 5m grass strip adjacent to the watercourse?

See soil management advice

High risk of pesticides reaching water.

Avoid application when heavy rainfall is forecast in the five days following application

NO

Apply product as advised by a BASIS registered agronomist

YES

For further information visit www.voluntaryinitiative.org.uk

clopyralid

START

HERE

New

Clopyralid

Up to 2007 clopyralid has not been a significant issue in surface water. However recent detections in some catchments have raised the level of concern. Based on the chemistry and use pattern of clopyralid the greatest risk to water is during mixing, filling and cleaning the sprayer and drift at time of application.

Follow best practices on mixing and handling and application to reduce the risk.

Follow advice for use on cracked, dry or saturated soils

Are the drains flowing or likely to flow in the next 14 days?

NO

The risk of losses of this compound is increased when fields have been sub-soiled or mole-drained within the preceding six months

Is the field bordered by a watercourse or could run-off reach a watercourse?

Check soil management advice

YES

YES

NO

Is field slope less than 5%

A 5% gradient is 1 metre in 20 metres

NO

NO

YES

Is there at least a 5m grass strip adjacent to the watercourse?

See soil management advice

Cross compliance guidelines require a 1m unsprayed buffer from the top of the bank of any watercourse

NO

YES

High risk of pesticides reaching water.

Avoid application when heavy rainfall is forecast in the five days following application

Apply product as advised by a BASIS registered adviser

For further information visit www.voluntaryinitiative.org.uk

sprays on grassland 1

New

Sprays on grassland 1

Minute amounts of weedkillers and pesticides can be detected in water and the tiniest of splashes which occur when filling the sprayer can have a big impact. Just one foil seal contains enough pesticide to breach the water quality standards in a 30km stream.

Some of the sprays used on grassland are found in water, including compounds such as 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, mecoprop-p, MCPA, MCPB and clopyralid. When these products are used correctly, and care and attention is paid to filling and disposal practices, the risk of them reaching water will be greatly reduced. Think where you fill and wash the sprayer and make sure there is no chance of any spills, spray or washings reaching water.

‘Pesticide’ is a very broad definition within the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 which includes herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, growth regulators, soil sterilants, rodenticides and wood preservatives amongst others.

Clear up all spills, no matter how small, immediately.

Never wash any spray or spills into farm drains or watercourses.

sprays on grassland 2
Sprays on grassland 2

1.Get advice from a BASIS-registered adviser on when and how to use the right product.

2. Only use approved pesticides and keep them in a clearly marked lockable store.

3. Anyone using pesticides must be trained, competent and where necessary qualified to do the job. Or use a contractor (see blue box)

4. Check the sprayer for drips and leaks. Use the jug test to check nozzle flow rates.

5. When filling the sprayer take great care. Use a drip tray or portable bund when filling on grass, concrete or hardcore. Alternatively fill in a bunded concrete area where drainage is actively managed to stop pesticides reaching water.

6. Triple rinse and drain pesticide containers before storing them under cover to await disposal by a registered waste disposal contractor.

8. Wash sprayer in the field and park under cover.

7. Ensure there is no risk of drift or overspray reaching water. Leave a 5m unsprayed strip next to ditches and water courses and consider using drift reducing nozzles.

sprays on grassland 3

New

Sprays on grassland 3
  • Contractors
  • Using a contractor can take a lot of the hassle out of spraying BUT Ensure the following first:
  • Operators are qualified and members of NRoSO
  • The sprayer has a current NSTS certificate
  • Any filling point used poses no risks to water
  • Containers are cleaned and drained ready for disposal
  • Agree who is responsible for disposal
  • Accurate spray records are promptly supplied

Remember it is still your responsibility to ensure that all regulations are met