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20 11 the hall effect
20-11 The Hall Effect
  • When a current-carrying conductor is held firmly in the magnetic field, the field exerts a sideways force on the charges moving in the conductor. This results in a potential difference in the conductor. When the potential difference builds up and produces electric field EH it produces and exerts a force eEH , that is equal and opposite to the magnetic force…this is called the Hall effect.
  • The potential difference produced is called the Hall emf.
20 12 mass spectrometer
20-12 Mass Spectrometer
  • Mass spectrometers were designed to measure the mass of atoms. Ions are produced by heating substances to high temperatures…
  • If the electric force qE up on + ions is just balanced by magnetic force qvB (down on positive ions) is balanced, then the ion will pass through a selector slit. ( qE=qvB or v=E/B
  • Isotopes were found in this way, because only ions or atoms of the same mass pass through the slit. (see p607 and p608)
  • See Example 20-14 p608
20 13 ferromagnetism domains

20-13 Ferromagnetism; Domains

*Some materials can be made into ‘permanent’ magnets.

These materials are said to be ferromagnetic.

Small, often microscopic regions, called domains, (at most 1mm) are aligned in ferro-magnetic substances. They are random in non-ferromagnetic substances.

Above a certain temperature, called the Curie Temperature, (1043 K for iron) no magnetism can be produced at all

20 14 electromagnets and solenoids

20-14 Electromagnets and Solenoids

*When a coil is wrapped around iron, or other ferromagnetic substance, an electromagnet can be produced.

*Electromagnets have many uses. (see p 611)

20 15 magnetic fields in m agnetic materials hysteresis

20-15 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials ; Hysteresis

*The magnetic field inside a solenoid can be found using B0 = u0nI

When a ferromagnetic material is inside a solenoid

we use the formula:

B = u nI where u is the magnetic permeability of the material in the center of the solenoid or electromagnet.

*Measurements of magnetic materials are often made using a torus, which is an iron ring solenoid.

* Hysteresis is a curve resulting from these measurements, using a torus, where the curves do not retrace their data points of the previous curve.

homework ch20txtd
Homework ch20TXTD
  • P618-619 prob. 47,50-51,56