The Palestine Question The History of Palestine • Originally Palestine had always been a disputed land • Jews claim that Palestine belongs to them, a claim that goes back 3,000 years when the Jews ruled Jerusalem. • This would all change when the Romans took control of Palestine in 63 BCE • The Romans forced the Jews to pay tribute to Rome and effectively ended Jewish political control of Palestine
Daispora • Romans ruled the area of Palestine and allowed to the Jews to remain until the Jewish revolt of 66-70 CE. • The Romans put down the revolt, captured Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple, the centre of the national and religious life of the Jews throughout the world. • The destruction of Jerselum and the settlement of several Grecian and Roman colonies in Judea, indicated the express intention of the Roman government to prevent the political regeneration of the Jewish nation. • Jews attempted to set up colonies around Judea however after a second revolt by Jews in 133 CE the Romans destroyed all the colonies and dispursed the Jews by selling them into slavery or pushing them to other areas of the Empire
Palestine Arab Control • With the rise of Islam in 600 CE Muslims began to move into Palestine. • From 636 CE to about the 15th Century the area of Palestine fell under Arab and Turkish control. • The area was also disputed by Muslims and Christians during the Crusades. • In the 15th Century the Ottoman Empire finally took control and ruled until 1917 when the Empire fell apart.
Treaty of Versailles • One of the results from the Treaty of Versailles was that Britain and France gained territorial land in the Middle East. • In 1918 the British Colonial Army took control of Palestine and was to prepare Palestine to gain it’s self-determination. • However this did not happen.
Zionist Movement • Jews or Zionist those who believed in creating a Jewish homeland, began migrating to Palestine in the late 1800’s. • Imputous for the Zionist movement began as a direct result of Anti-Semitic feelings in Europe. • In the 1800’s there were violent assaults of Jews called pogroms especially in Eastern European nations like Russia and Poland
Zionist Movement • In 1870 Leon Prinsker, a Jewish intellectual, felt that Jewish assimilation into Eastern European society was impossible and called for Jewish return to the Holy Land • Soon after the Zionist Organization, The Society for the Colonialization of Israel was set up. • Zionist began moving to Palestine and purchasing land and setting up communities
Zionist Movement-Dreyfus Affair In Western Europe Jews resisited the Zionist movement because they did enjoy some political and social rights especially in places like Germany However in 1897 French Army Captain and Jew, Alfred Dreyfus, was fasley accused by the French Army for selling military secrets to the Germans. The French people rioted in the streets calling for the “Death to Jews” Seven years later Dreyfus was found innocent of the charges, made up by his superiors, to discredit his military carrer the Zionist movement was now in full swing in Western Europe
Zionist Movement • Theodor Herzl and Austrian journalist began publishing articles about the need for Jewish to form a Zionist Organization and move to Israel. • The World Zionist Organzation was formed • However Herzl showed indifference for the Arabs that controlled Palestine stating that Palestine was a land without people for a people (Jews) without a land
The Arabs After World War One many Arabs felt betrayed by western powers who now replaced the Ottoman Empire as a controlling factor in the Middle east. Arab nations expected that the Treaty of Vesailles was going to liberate them and instead they now came under the control of either the French or British who would keep these areas as conlonies
The Arabs • Furthermore the Arabs in Palestine now saw an even greater threat to their land as Jews began to move into Palestine setting up comminities and buying large portions of land. • Arabs began to channel this hostility of the lack of self-determination coupled with frustrations with Jewish immigration into violence towards the Jews.
The Belfour Declaration • After World War One Arabs had been told that they would be left in charge of the areas of Palestine they controlled. • However in 1917 Lord Balfour of Great Britain had promised Zionist leaders that Great Britain would promote a Jewish State in Palestine with the Balfour Declaration. • Great Britain had made promises to both the Arabs and Jews that would now have repercussions even today.
The Belfour Declaration • Soon after the Balfour Declaration was issued Jews and Arabs began to violently clash over rights to Palestine. • Rising Arab opposition to the British support of a Jewish state lead the British to re-think their support of a Zionist movement. • The British began to restrain Zionist support in Palestine which lead Zionist in Palestine to mistrust the British. • Soon both Arabs and Jews were building up defenses and openly clashing in the cities and towns • The British tried to limited Jewish immigration in the 1930’s and 40’s however after World war Two and the Holocaust Jewish immigration exploded.
Readings on Palestinian Conflict • Arab Opposition to a State of Israel • Israel’s Proclamation of Independence • Question discussion to follow
Formation of Israel • In 1947 Britain could no longer control the area and looked to the United nations for help. • The U.N. drew up a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state. • The Jews agreed to the plan the Arabs did not. • In 1948 Britain withdrew • The Jews proclaimed Israel an independent state. • The U.S. and Soviet Union both recognized Israel as a state.
Formation of Israel • Because the Arab states did not recognize Israel, they began to attack Israel. • In 1948 the Israeli’s fought the War for Independence. • Arab forces from Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon attacked Israel. • Israel won the war and doubled it’s land and gained one half of Jerusalem.
Israel’s Wars • The Arab-Israeli Wars occurred between 1948 and 1979. • 1948 the War for Independence • 1958 the Suez Crisis (Israel was denied use of the Suez Canal by Egypt) Israel won. • 1967 Six Day War (Egypt and Syria attack Israel. In six days Israel takes over the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, and all of Jerusalem) • 1973 Yom Kippur(Egypt and Syria attack Israel to try to re-gain lost land) Israel holds off both countries.
Camp David Accords • In 1973 Egypt and Israel began to seek peace. • In 1979 Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David Accords ending a state of war between both countries. • In 1994 Jordan also signs a peace agreement with Israel.
Displacement of the Arabs • After the war 700,000 Arabs fled to neighboring countries. • Many Arabs had to live in camps as refugees. • The Arabs lived in both poverty and were discriminated against by the Israeli’s • Many terrorist groups grew out of these Arabs refugees.
The PLO • In 1964 the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed. • The leader is Yasir Arafat. • They used terrorist tactics against the Israelis. • In 1987 young Palestinians started a form of civil disobedience an intifada or uprising. Teenagers threw rocks at the Israeli army. • The Israelis began a crackdown of the uprising which created further conflict.
A Sort of Peace • In 1993 talks were held between Israel and the PLO. • Yasir Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin agreed to give Palestinians self rule in Gaza and Jericho.
Renewed Violence • In 2001 Israel invaded Palestinian ruled areas of the West Bank in retaliation of terrorist attacks against Israel. • Since that time there has been renewed attacks against Israelis by Palestinian groups namely Hamas. • The Israeli army and Government has also renewed attacks against Palestinians and terrorist groups in the region.
Classwork • Video Palestine 1890 to 1990 (35 minutes)
Homework • Political cartoons on the Arab/Israel Problem. • Find a newspaper/magazine article on the conflict in the Middle East. You may not use Iraq or Afghanistan. Read the article and write a summary of the article. You will be presenting your article in class.