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TEXTURE PROFILE METHODS. Texture Profile. Provides quantitative description of attributes important to food texture Developed in 1960s in analogy to “flavor profiling” of A. D. Little (1940s) Civille and Szczesniak (1973) and Civille and Liska (1975) instrumental to development.

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texture profile
Texture Profile
  • Provides quantitative description of attributes important to food texture
  • Developed in 1960s in analogy to “flavor profiling” of A. D. Little (1940s)
  • Civille and Szczesniak (1973) and Civille and Liska (1975) instrumental to development
initiated by understanding that texture was
Initiated by understanding that texture was:
  • A sensory property, more than just a force-deformation relationship
  • Made up of many parameters; most are tactile, some are visual or aural
  • May be described by imprecise terminology
  • Had characteristics that appear in predictable orders
definitions texture
Definitions: Texture
  • The visual or tactile surface characteristics of something (Webster's definition 3b)
  • is a sensory attribute, perceived by the senses of touch, sight and hearing (Brennen)
  • Sensory manifestation of the structure of inner makeup in terms of their:
    • 1.Reaction to stress measured as mechanical properties by kinesthetic sense in the muscles of the tongue, jaw and lips.
    • 2.Tactile properties measured as geometrical or moisture properties by tactile nerves in surface of the skin of lips or tongue (Meilgaard, Civille, Carr, 1991)
slide10

Visual

Geometric and

Surface properties

FIRST BITE

MECHANICAL

GEOMETRICAL

Fracturability

Any geometric properties

depending upon the product

Viscosity

Firmness

MASTICATION

(early)

MECHANICAL

GEOMETRICAL

Fracturability

Any geometric properties

depending upon the product

Firmness

Viscosity

MASTICATION

(late)

MOISTURE

BREAKDOWN

FAT

MOUTH-COATING

Type Rate Adsorption Release Release Mouth- Type Amount

coating

SWALLOWING

Ease of Throat-Coating

RESIDUAL

MOUTH-COATING THROAT-COATING GENERAL FEEL ON:

Type Amount Type Amount Mouth Throat

slide11
In texture profile analysis attributes are defined
  • Order and method of processing is considered
texture profiling method
Texture Profiling Method

The sensory analysis of the texture complex of a food in terms of its mechanical, geometrical, fat and moisture characteristics, the degree of each present, and the order in which they appear from first bite through complete mastication.

panelists
Panelists
  • Selected based on ability to discriminate known textural differences
  • Interviewed to determine interest, availability, and attitude
  • Trained using a variety of products
  • May be introduced to underlying textural principles, mechanical forces, strains, etc
slide14

Character notes

  • Mechanical, geometric, moisture
  • Intensity/scaling
  • Such as 15 cm line scale
slide15

Order of appearance

Prior to mastication

First bite

First chew

Chew down

Residual phase

slide16

Objectives

  • To eliminate problems with subject variability
  • To allow direct comparison of results with known materials
  • To provide a relationship with instrument measures
  • How
  • Specific rating scales
  • Specific reference materials
  • Meaningful term definitions
tpa the method
TPA: The Method
  • Panelists rate each of the selected attributes according to a standard scale
  • Scales available for hardness, fracturability, chewiness, guminess, adhesiveness, and viscosity
  • Scales are quantitative but do not measure a physical quantity or indicate quantitative relationships
slide18

For Example: Standard Hardness Scale

Panelists need to be trained on the scale

specified sensory techniques
Specified sensory techniques

Hardness Place sample between molar teeth and bite down evenly, evaluating the force required to compress the food

Cohesiveness Place sample between molar teeth, compress and evaluate the amount of deformation before rupture

slide20

Viscosity Place a spoon containing sample directly in front of mouth and draw liquid from spoon over tongue by slurping, evaluating the force required to draw liquid over the tongue at a steady rate.

Springiness Place sample either between molar teeth (if it is a solid) or between tongue and palate (if it is a semi-solid) and compress partially; remove force and evaluate the degree and speed of recovery

slide21

Adhesiveness Place sample on tongue, press it against palate and evaluate force required to remove it with tongue.

Fracturability Place a sample between molar teeth and bite down evenly until sample crumbles, cracks or shatters; evaluate force with which sample moves away from teeth.

slide22

Chewiness Place sample in mouth and masticate at one chew per second and at a force equal to that required to penetrate a gumdrop plus or minus one second; evaluate the number of chews required to reduce sample to a state ready for swallowing.

Gumminess Place sample in mouth and manipulate with tongue against palate; evaluate amount of manipulation necessary before sample disintegrates

slide23

Each attribute has series of 9 standrds

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Hardness Low Cream cheese

Medium Frankfurter

High Hard candy

Adhesiveness Low Vegetable oil

Medium Marshmallow

topping

High Peanut butter

slide24

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Fracturability Low Corn muffin

Medium Ginger snap

High Hard candy

Cohesiveness Low Corn muffin

Medium Dried fruit

High Chewing gum

slide25

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Denseness Low Whipped topping

Medium Malted milk balls

High Fruit jellies

Wetness Low Crackers

Medium Ham

High Water

slide26

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Adhesiveness to lips Low Tomato

Medium Breadstick

High Rice cereal

Roughness Low Gelatin dessert

Medium Potato chip

High Thin bread wafer

slide27

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Cohesiveness of mass Low Licorice

Medium Frankfurter

High Bread dough

Moisture absorption Low Licorice

Medium Potato chip

High Cracker

slide28

Texture Attribute Scale Standard

Adhesiveness to teeth Low Clam

Medium Graham cracker

High Jujubes

Hardness Low Marshmallow

Medium Bread dough

High Nougat

slide29

Example: Terminology for

Oral Texture of Cookies

slide30

Surface Place cookie between lips and

  • evaluate for:
  • Roughness: Degree to which surface is uneven (smooth-rough)
  • Loose particles: Amount of loose particles on surface (none to many)
  • Dryness: Absence of oil on the surface (oily to dry)
slide31

First Bite Place one third of cookie between incisors, bite down and evaluate for:

  • Fracturability: Force with which sample ruptures (crumbly to brittle)
  • Hardness: Force required to bite through sample (soft to hard)
  • Particle Size: Size of crumb pieces (small to large)
slide32

First Chew Place one third of cookie between molars, bite through and evaluate for:

  • Denseness: Compactness of cross section (airy to dense)
  • Uniformity of Chew: Degree to which chew is even throughout (uneven to even)
slide33

Chew Down Place one third of cookie between molars, chew 10 to 12 times and evaluate for:

  • Moisture Absorption: Amount of saliva absorbed by sample (none to a lot)
  • Type of Breakdown: Thermal, Mechanical, Salivary (multiple choice, no scale)
  • Cohesiveness of Mass: Degree to which mass holds together (loose to cohesive)
  • Tooth Pack: Amount of sample stuck in molars (none to a lot)
  • Grittiness: Amount of small, hard particles between teeth during chew (none to a lot)
slide34

Residual Swallow sample and evaluate residue in mouth for:

Oily: Degree to which mouth feels oily (dry to oily)

Particles: Amount of particles left in mouth (none to a lot)

Chalky: Degree to which mouth feels chalky (not chalky to very chalky)

slide35

Quantitative Descriptive

Analysis: General Approach

Panelists (10-15) meet to try product and similar products

Panelists develop list of attributes pertinent to that group of products

slide36

Rubbery Sticky

Gritty Gooey

Chewy Hard

Cohesive Firm

Falls apart Tender

Elastic Sandy

Softness Springy

All terms may be reduced to a smaller subset, similar terms agreed upon, redundant terms eliminated

slide37

Develop relative standards for select attributes

Some may already be published, or they may need to be developed

Provide panelists with scales and test standards