An Exemplified presentation of Appropriate Comma Usage (Rules) and Inappropriate Comma Usage (Superfluity) English 081 Comma Rules
The Ten Rules CRa - Crj English 081 Comma Rules
Comma Rule a governs introductory elements; of which there are three types: Single words: Unfortunately, we must study the comma rules. Meanwhile, Jake and his friends left for Tempe. Phrases: Just last semester, the teacher gave five quizzes. Heading down the road, Bill was sure of the directions. To reach the professor, it is always better to e-mail him. Clauses: (adverbial only, not noun) Although he headed down the road, Bill was sure of the directions. When the class finished the handout,they had questions. Before he quit the PowerPoint,he did a spell check.
Comma Rule b governs items in a series. We must review comma rules a,b, and c for the quiz. Fred told his mother he forgot his pens, notebook, and English handouts. Studying hard, being responsible, and going to class are all part of being successful in school.
Comma Rule c governs two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet). Kate likes cooking Italian food,but she is not a big fan of having to clean up. He wrote two independent clauses,and he remembered to put a comma before the conjunction. We can either go to the movies tonight, or we can go to Ralph’s party in Chandler. Lois understands most of the comma rules,yet she still struggles with comma rule c
Comma Rule d governs coordinate adjectives, two closely related modifiers that limit the same noun. Although he tried, Jim could not reach the large,very heavy TV on the top shelf. Comma rule d is an easy,uncomplicated rule to remember. The crazy,misguided members of the Tea Party all showed up to the rally with misspelled signs.
Comma Rule e governs essential and non-essential elements: Essential elementsdo not get set off or enclosed by a comma(s). Non-essential elements do. Red snapper fried in butter is better than baked red snapper. (essential phrase, hence no commas) William Faulkner’s story Barn Burning is quite complicated as far as the protagonist’s plight is concerned. (essential appositive, hence no commas) The professor who was standing by the classroom wanted his students to know how to punctuate. (essential clause, hence no commas)
Comma Rule e governs essential and non-essential elements: Essential elements do not get set off or enclosed by a comma(s). Non-essential elementsdo. Red snapper,which is a lighter fish, is better than swordfish. (non-essentialclause, commas are necessary) William Faulkner’s story Barn Burning,a complicated narrative,, is sometimes difficult to read. (non-essentialappositive, commas necessary) Mr. Mugford,who was standing by the classroom, wanted his students to know how to punctuate. (non-essentialclause, commas necessary)
RegardingComma Rule e, you as a writer determine how a reader interprets your words. Read the following sentences and tell me how many grandmothers I have: My grandmother who smokes pot is coming to town. answer, 2 My grandmother, who smokes pot, is coming to town. answer, 1
Comma Rule f governs transitional and parenthetical elements, contrasting comments and absolute phrases: Bruce Springsteen,for example, does cover some of the more unknown artists’ songs. Bill was doing his best,or so we thought, and we were shocked to discover the damage. The students learned more quickly about Comma Rule f,not so with Comma Rule e. He was content to watch football all night, not Dancing with Morons. The teacher having finished Rules A through F,he distributed the handout.
Comma Rule g governs words of direct address, yes and no, mild interjections, and tag questions Students, it is important for you to know the comma rules. It is important for you,students, to know the comma rules. It is important for you to know the comma rules,students. Yes, it is very important that you vote in 2012. No, you should never think voting is irrelevant. Oh, I didn’t realize he was the one who lost the tickets. I think we can learn all the comma rules,don’t you?
Comma Rule h governs using commas to set off direct quotations, i.e., a person’s exact words. Martin Luther King once said, “Today we have guided missiles and misguided men.” "Greatspiritshave,” Einstein said, “often encountered violent opposition from weak minds." "RickPerry had to leave the debate early. He was late for an execution,” quipped David Letterman.
Comma Rule i governs dates, addresses, place names, and long numbers By December 31, 2013,our troops may be home from Afghanistan. Do not use commas when the day of the month is omitted or when using the military style of dating: for example, Our troops may be home by December 2013. or Our troops my be home by 31 December 2013. SCC’s address is 9000 E. Chaparral Rd.,Scottsdale,Arizona 85256.(no comma between state and zip code) In Boston,Massachusetts, there are many cultural sites to visit. In the United States, around 43,600,000 people live in poverty.
Comma Rule j governs when to use a comma to prevent confusion Of sixtyseven were not in attendance for the major exam. Of sixty, seven were not in attendance for the major exam. As she was rising to speakher mind suddenly played a cruel trick, and she forgot what she was to say. As she was rising to speak, her mind suddenly played a cruel trick, and she forgot what she was to say. For Mike Tyson was about as intelligent as a brussel sprout. For Mike,Tyson was about as intelligent as a brussel sprout.
Superfluous Commas CRk - Cro#9 English 081 Comma Rules
CRk Do not use a comma to separate a subject from a verb, a verb from its object, or a preposition from its object The following sentences are incorrectly punctuated. subject verb Reflecting on one’s life, is necessary for emotional growth. verb clause is the direct object Candidate Herman Cain said, that we need less government and more toppings. prep. obj. of prep. Although he is famous actor, he is still in, emotional limbo.
CRl Do not use a comma before the first or after the last item in a series. Commas in red are incorrect; black ones correct Americans work longer hours than, German, French, or British workers, are expected to work.
CRm Do not use a comma to separate compound word groups unless they are independent clauses Commas in red are incorrect His injuries became quite frequent, and really caused his game to go downhill. He is worried about his injuries being more frequent, and about his having to play more cautiously to avoid them.
CRn Do not use a comma to set off essential modifiers, essential appositives, or concluding adverb clauses, Commas in red are incorrect essential clause The students, who viewed the Comma Rules PowerPoint, were much better prepared than their classmates. essential appositive The director, Martin Scorsese, has been responsible for many great documentaries. concluding clause He was eager to see the Republican debate, because most of the candidates were nut jobs.
Cro#1 Do not use a comma between cumulative adjectives Commas in red are incorrect Three, well-known, American artists visted Jane’s studio in New York.
Cro#2 Do not use a comma between adjectives and nouns black comma is correct; red is incorrect An art review by a celebrated, powerful, writer would be guaranteed publication.
Cro#3 Do not use a comma between adverbs and adjectives red comma is incorrect His kitchen was a delightfully, artistic place to visit after work.
Cro#4 Do not use a comma between a noun and a particple in an absolute phrase red comma is incorrect; black correct My favorite singer, having lost the contest, I stopped paying attention to the show.
Cro#5 Do not use a comma after coordinating conjunctions black comma is correct; red comma is incorrect The textbook for the literature course may be purchased at Amazon, and, it will probably arrive before the course starts.
Cro#6 Do not use a comma after such as or like black comma is correct; red comma is incorrect Memorizing some of the English class materials can be tedious, such as, the rules governing the use of the comma.
Cro#7 Do not use a comma before than red comma is incorrect An appointment to the Supreme Court has more long-range consequences, than any other decision a President makes.
Cro#8 Do not use a comma before a parenthesis red comma is incorrect; black correct When the students saw the new iPads, (a recent invention), they were eager to use them in class.
Cro#9 Do not use a comma after a question mark or exclamation point that ends a quotation red comma is incorrect “Is this the end of the PowerPoint show?,” she asked the professor.