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Essential Question. What challenges did the ratification process present for the Constitution? . Ratification of the Constitution. Chapter 8 Section 3 (Pt I). Federalism. After the Const. was sent to the states, debate raged over the power of the proposed govt

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Essential question
Essential Question

  • What challenges did the ratification process present for the Constitution?

Ratification of the constitution

Ratification of the Constitution

Chapter 8 Section 3 (Pt I)


  • After the Const. was sent to the states, debate raged over the power of the proposed govt

    • To address fears that the Const. would give the new govt too much power, the framers introduced the idea of federalism

      • This system proposed sharing power btwn the federal govt and the state govts

The federalists
The Federalists

  • Linking to this idea, the people who supported the Const. took the name Federalists

    • Federalist leaders wrote a series of essays known as The Federalist Papers in order to:

      • promote their ideas

      • defend the principles of the Const.

    • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, & John Jay were the principal Federalist authors of these essays

Concerns of the antifederalists
Concerns of the Antifederalists

  • The Antifederalists, or those opposed to the Const., also held several strong opinions

    • The Const. took too much power away from the states

    • The Const. did not guarantee rights of the people

      • In such a system, a strong leader might become a king

    • The Senate might become a powerful ruling class

    • The SC also had the potential to become too powerful

  • Overall, Antifederalists felt the Const. risked losing the liberties fought for in the Rev. War

    • Support came largely from rural Americans

    • Large states w/ strong economies also tended to be Antifederalist

Summary test question
Summary/Test Question

  • What best explains why Americans feared a strong national govt?

    a. their experiences under British rule

    b. their experiences under state constitutions

    c. their experiences under the Articles of Confed.

    d. their experiences under the Continental


Call for a bill of rights
Call For a Bill of Rights

  • Many Antifederalists pushed for the inclusion of a “Bill of rights” in the Const.

    • They argued the Const. must spell out the people’s rights, or U.S. leaders could too easily ignore them

    • In turn, a list of guaranteed rights of the people needed to be written

      • They also wanted written guarantees to rights like:

        • Freedoms of: Speech, Press, & Religion

        • Right to bear arms

        • Trial by Jury


  • In Dec. 1787, ratification came from DE, NJ, & PA

    • By Feb. 1788 the states of GA, CT, & MA followed suit

    • By late summer, the requisite 9 states needed for ratification of the Const. had been achieved

      • It was vital, though, that all 13 states get on board (especially the large populations of VA & NY)

        • This would legitimize the document, as well as give it the base of support necessary to allow it to work

The articles
The Articles

  • The main body of the Const. is made up of 7 Articles:

    • Article I – Legislative Branch

    • Article II – Executive Branch

    • Article III – Judicial Branch

    • Article IV – Relations Among States

    • Article V – Amending the Const.

    • Article VI - Supremacy of National Govt.

    • Article VII – Ratification

      • * These Articles explain/state:

        • 1. The function of the 3 branches

        • 2. How states function within the new govt.

        • 3. How to change the new govt., if necessary

        • 4. The Constitution is the “supreme law of the land”

Majority rule
Majority Rule

  • VA held out, worried that a govt based on majority rule would favor the North

    • The north had more states and would dictate trade, slavery, and overall political policy

  • After bitter debate, VA narrowly ratified the Const.

    • NY followed suit soon after, legitimizing the Const.

    • NC & RI held out, but eventually passed the Const. by 1790

      • By then, the new Congress had already written the bill of rights and submitted it to the states

  • Summary test question1
    Summary/Test Question

    • Why did the new govt add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?

      • Many states refused to sign the Constitution without it

      • The writers wanted to protect people’s personal rights & freedoms

      • Many people believed it was needed to limit the power of the national govt

      • All of the Above