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Health Promotion and Primary Cancer Prevention. Objectives. Discuss two lifestyle recommendations that may reduce cancer incidence and mortality. Describe means to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Types of Cancer Prevention. Primary Secondary Tertiary.

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  • Discuss two lifestyle recommendations that may reduce cancer incidence and mortality.

  • Describe means to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

Types of cancer prevention
Types of Cancer Prevention

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

Impact of primary prevention
Impact of Primary Prevention

  • An estimated 75% of cancer cases in the U.S. may be caused by modifiable factors such as tobacco use, diet, infectious diseases, chemicals, and radiation exposure.

  • A healthy lifestyle and broader use of screening tests could prevent and delay the development of many cancers.

Health promotion and primary prevention recommendations
Health Promotion and Primary Prevention Recommendations

  • Nutrition recommendations

  • Alcohol consumption

  • Activity guidelines

  • Tobacco cessation

  • Skin protection

  • HPV prevention

Acs guidelines on nutrition and physical activity
ACS Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity

  • The four basic components are:

    • Reaching and/or maintaining a healthy weight

    • Engaging in an active lifestyle

    • Limiting alcohol intake

    • Choosing a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant foods.

Nutrition recommendations
Nutrition Recommendations

  • Balance caloric intake with physical activity to avoid excessive weight gain throughout life cycle.

  • If overweight or obese, take active steps to achieve a healthy weight.

  • Eat five or more servings of vegetables and fruits each day—2 ½ cups.

  • Choose whole grains over processed (refined) grains.

  • Limit consumption of processed and red meats.

Activity guidelines
Activity Guidelines

  • Limit sedentary activities.

  • Children and adolescents:

    • Engage in at least one hour of moderate or vigorous intensity activity each day.

    • Engage in vigorous intensity activity at least three days each week.

  • Adults:

    • Engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity activity spread throughout each week.

Alcohol intake guidelines
Alcohol Intake Guidelines

  • Women should limit alcohol intake to no more than one drink per day.

  • Men should limit alcohol intake to no more than two drinks per day.

  • A drink of alcohol is defined as

    • 12 ounces of beer

    • 5 ounces of wine

    • 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.

Facts about tobacco use
Facts About Tobacco Use

  • Smoking increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, nasal cavities, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and uterine cervix, as well as leukemia.

  • Risk of lung cancer:

    • 23 times higher in male smokers

    • 13 times higher in female smokers

  • Smoking cessation greatly reduces the risk of death from cancer and other causes.

  • Risk of lung cancer also is increased by exposure to secondhand smoke.

Benefits of tobacco cessation
Benefits of Tobacco Cessation

Short-Term Benefits

Long-Term Benefits

Decreased risk of dying from lung cancer

Decreased risk of throat, bladder, kidney, or pancreatic cancer

Reduced risk of stroke or heart attack

  • Normalization of:

    • Elevated blood pressure, pulse, and body temperature due to nicotine

    • Blood carbon monoxide and oxygen levels.

  • Taste and smell acuity improves.

  • Shortness of breath decreases.

  • Risk of infection decreases.

  • Coughing and sinus congestion decrease.

  • Energy level and ability to walk improve.

Tobacco cessation
Tobacco Cessation

  • Cessation is most successful with a combination of behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy.

  • Tobacco users should be advised to quit at each clinical encounter.

  • Behavioral counseling can be accomplished through group or individualized sessions.

Start method
START Method

  • S = Set a quit date.

  • T = Tell family, friends, and coworkers that you plan to quit.

  • A = Anticipate and plan for the challenges you will face while quitting.

  • R = Remove cigarettes and other tobacco products from your home, car, and work.

  • T = Talk to a healthcare provider about getting help to quit.

Smoking cessation aids
Smoking Cessation Aids

  • Nicotine gum and lozenges

  • Nicotine patch

  • Nicotine inhaler

  • Bupropion

  • Varenicline

Skin cancer prevention
Skin Cancer Prevention

  • Skin cancer prevention focuses on reducing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure.

  • Most exposure comes from the sun but can also come from artificial sources such as sunlamps and indoor tanning parlors.

  • Environmental factors can influence the amount of natural UVR exposure.

Sunscreen basics
Sunscreen Basics

  • Two types of sunscreens:

    • Physical sunscreens

    • Chemical sunscreens

  • Sunscreen should be used any time an individual is outdoors during daylight hours.

  • Extra steps should be taken with children to protect their skin and to prevent sunburns.

Selecting a sunscreen
Selecting a Sunscreen

  • All sunscreen products include a sun protection factor (SPF).

    • SPF is a measurement of the amount of UVB protection—the higher the number, the greater the protection.

    • Currently, no standard rating system exists that measures UVA protection.

    • SPF is not an indication of how much time one can spend in the sun.

    • Optimally, UVR exposure should be reduced between 10 am and 4 pm.

Application of sunscreen
Application of Sunscreen

  • Apply sunscreen approximately 30 minutes before being in the sun.

  • Reapply sunscreen at least every 90 minutes and after swimming or strenuous exercise.

  • Use an ounce (a handful) of sunscreen to adequately cover the entire body.

  • Apply thickly and thoroughly.

Other skin cancer prevention strategies
Other Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies

  • Seek shade and limit sun exposure between 10 am and 4 pm.

  • Wear hats with a wide brim.

  • Wear shirts with sleeves.

  • Wear sunglasses to protect ocular structures.

  • Avoid all artificial sources of UVR, including sunlamps and indoor tanning parlors.

Hpv infection and cancer prevention
HPV Infection and Cancer Prevention

  • Vaccination with the HPV vaccine can greatly reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  • HPV vaccination is recommended for females aged 1112.

    • May be given to females as young as age 9

    • Is also recommended for females aged 1318 to catch up on missed vaccine or to complete the vaccination series

  • HPV vaccination is recommended for males aged 926.

    • Decreases the risk of genital warts and anal cancer

    • Males can also carry and transmit HPV to their partners.

  • Screening for cervical cancer should continue in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women.

Acs 2015 goals for cancer prevention
ACS 2015 Goals for Cancer Prevention

Nutrition and Physical Activity

  • Reverse the trend of increasing rates of overweight and obesity among U.S. adults and youth so that it is no higher than it was in 2005.

  • Increase to 70% the proportion of adults and youth who follow ACS guidelines with respect to physical activity.

  • Increase to 75% the proportion of people who follow ACS guidelines for consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Acs 2015 goals for cancer prevention1
ACS 2015 Goals for Cancer Prevention

Tobacco Use

  • Current cigarette smokers:

    • Reduce the proportion of adults from 21% to 12%.

    • Reduce the proportion of high school students from 19.5% to 10%.

  • Current smokeless tobacco users

    • Reduce the proportion of adults from 3.5% to 0.04%.

    • Reduce the proportion of high school students from 8.9% to 1%.

Acs 2015 goals for cancer prevention2
ACS 2015 Goals for Cancer Prevention

Skin Cancer Prevention

  • Increase to 75% the proportion of people who use at least two of the following protective measures:

    • Avoid the sun between 10 am and 4 pm.

    • Wear sun-protective clothing.

    • Properly apply sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher.

    • Avoid artificial sources of ultraviolet light, including sunlamps and indoor tanning parlors.


  • American Cancer Society. (2014). Cancer prevention and early detection facts and figures 2014. Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved from

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Cancer control and prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from

  • (2011, August). Clearing the air: Quit smoking today. NIH Publication No. 11-1647. Retrieved from