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Genetics

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  1. Genetics I.Introduction A.History

  2. 1. C.Darwin& A.Wallaceblending 2. G.Mendel& F.Ungermixing 3. W. SuttonChromosomal theory of Inheritance 4. T. Morgan Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups

  3. 5. A.Sturtevantgenetic mapping 6. F.Griffithhereditary molecule 7. O. Avery etal. DNA hereditary molecule 8. B. McKlintock Transposons

  4. 9. W.Fierssequenced viral gene 10. A.JeffreysDNA finger printing 11. 1995Viral DNA sequenced 12. 1996 yeast DNA sequenced 13. 1998 round worm DNA sequenced 14. 2003 human DNA sequenced

  5. II.Mendelian A.Experimental Design 1.Monohybrid Cross

  6. a. Definition b. Terms i.Self vs.Cross Fertilization ii.Traits vs.Characteristics

  7. c. Process

  8. c. Process Figure 14.2

  9. c. Process Figure 14.3

  10. Figure 14.4 d. Principle traits are paired and sorted

  11. d. Principle traits are paired and sorted Figure 14.5

  12. i.Gene versus Allele e. Terms iii.Dominance versus Recessive iv.Genotype versus Phenotype ii. Homozygous versus Heterozygous

  13. Figure 14.6

  14. f. Testcross Figure 14.7

  15. f. Testcross

  16. 2.Dihybrid Cross

  17. a. Definition b. Process Start by figuring out how many andtype of gametes Figure 14.8

  18. Practice Dihybrid Heterozygous cross = AaBb X AaBb Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab for both Phenotypic ratio= 9:3:3:1, Genotypic ratio= 1:1:2:2:4:2:2:1:1 Dihybrid Heterozygous cross Homozygous Dominant = AaBb X AABB Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab; AABB= AB only Phenotypic ratio = all dominant, Genotypic ratio = 1:1:1:1 c. Principle Each pair of alleles and chromosomessort independently into gametes.

  19. III.Variation on Mendel A.Dominance

  20. 1. Complete 2. Co-dominance AA aa Aa

  21. 3. Incomplete dominance Figure 14.10

  22. B.Gene Interactions

  23. 1. Multiple Alleles

  24. 2. Pleitrophy 3. Penetrance

  25. C.Beyond Mendel

  26. 1. Epistasis

  27. 2. Polygenic Figure 14.11

  28. 2. Polygenic Figure 14.12

  29. IV.Classical Genetics A.History

  30. 1. R.Punnet& W.Bateson??? Figure 14.9

  31. 2. T. Morgan Genes & Chromosomes, Karyotyping, plus linkage groups a. Drosophila melangastor WHY? Figure 15.3

  32. Figure 15.4

  33. b. Genetic Recombination

  34. b. Genetic Recombination Figure 15.5

  35. b. Genetic Recombination

  36. 3. A. Sturtevant Genetic Mapping Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together Figure 15.6

  37. 3. A. Sturtevant Genetic Mapping Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together Figure 15.7

  38. 3. A. Sturtevant Genetic Mapping Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together Figure 15.8

  39. B.Sex Linkage

  40. 1. Basis of SEX

  41. 1. Basis of SEX Figure 15.9

  42. 1. SEX linked inheritance Figure 15.9

  43. a. Barr Bodies Figure 15.11

  44. V.Detection of Problems A.Techniques

  45. 1. Karyotyping 2. Amniocentesis == Cellular and Chemical Analysis Figure 14.17

  46. 3. Ultrasound 4. Chorionic Villi Sampling == Cellular and Chemical Analysis Figure 14.17

  47. 5. Fetal Tissue Sampling

  48. 6. Pedigree Analysis Figure 14.14

  49. 6. Pedigree Analysis