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Design Realization lecture 9. John Canny 9/23/03. Last Time. More on kinematics and IK. Some concepts from dynamics. This time: Manufacturing & Materials. Manufacturing is undergoing a revolution: Traditional methods: Casting, molding, fusing, slumping

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last time
Last Time
  • More on kinematics and IK.
  • Some concepts from dynamics.
this time manufacturing materials
This time: Manufacturing & Materials
  • Manufacturing is undergoing a revolution:
  • Traditional methods:
    • Casting, molding, fusing, slumping
    • Milling, lathing (non CNC-versions)
    • Stamping
    • Rolling, extrusion
  • Shape is “write-once” (not programmable) in these methods.
next wave manufacturing
Next-wave Manufacturing
  • Reprogramming shape:
    • CNC machining: A computer outputs a path for a cutting tool to create a specified surface.
    • Not new, but now inexpensive, PC-based.
    • Plastics, wood, metal, glass.

Flashcut 2000, XYZ-axes, 9x7x6.5”, $2895

milling
Milling
  • Milling involves a moving XYZ head that cuts into the workpiece:
  • Bits can achieve differentfinishes.
lathing
Lathing
  • Lathes cut circularly symmetric parts.
  • Shafts, furniture, fasteners,… lenses.
  • Can also do grinding and polishing.
milling example
Milling Example
  • CNC milling example (Deskproto web site)
  • Finish is quite smooth
    • ballnose cutting tool.
  • Lots of waste, but can be recycled!
next wave manufacturing8
Next-wave Manufacturing
  • PC-boards:
    • Created with CAD tools.
    • Photographic reproduction:
      • Low cost in volume.
      • High complexity possible.
    • Multi-step process, BUT:
    • Web-based services have 24-hour turnaround, low cost.
next wave manufacturing9
Next-wave Manufacturing
  • CNC Laser cutter:
    • X-Y axes control a powerful laser.
    • Fine line (0.007” or better).
    • Positioning to 1000 dpi,
    • Some control of depth:
      • Engraving as well as cutting.
    • Moderate cost:$10,000 Versalaser 16x12” workspace.
laser cutter capabilities
Laser Cutter Capabilities
  • Precision is good enough to make smooth sliding surfaces (gears).
  • Layering can be used to make3D surfaces (very popular for architectural models).
  • Can even make PCBsby etching metalfrom clear plastic!
other 2d cutting technologies
Other 2D Cutting Technologies
  • Lasers can cut metal, but not easily
    • Power limits, need to deal with material removal.
  • Plasma cutters use an electrically-generated plasma jet to cut
    • Sweeps away material.
plasma cutters
Plasma Cutters
  • Thin shapes in a variety of metals.
  • Torchmate 3 machine is $10,000 for 4x8’workspace.
water cutters
Water Cutters
  • Similar idea to plasma but based on high-pressure waterjet.
  • Cleaner method: water plus metal can be collected.
  • Cost??
3d printers
3D printers
  • A variety of 3D printing techniques have appeared in the last few years.
  • SLA: Stereolithography: laser curing of liquid plastic.
  • SLS: Selective Laser Sintering: similar, laser fuses powder.
  • LOM: Layered Object Modeling: laser cuts paper one layer at a time.
  • FDM: Fused Deposition Modeling: a thread of plastic is melted through a moving head.
stereolithography sla
Stereolithography: SLA
  • Earliest 3D method, based on UV-set polymers.
  • Resolution quite good: 0.002” layers.
  • Curing needed before part can be used.
fdm fused deposition modelling
FDM: Fused Deposition Modelling
  • FDM is one of the most versatile 3D methods
    • Many materials can be used:solvent-based or thermo-plastics.
    • Requires X-Y-X motion (like a CNC machine).
    • Stratasys machines start at $30,000
roll your own 3d printers
Roll-your-own 3D Printers
  • Material feeding heads are commercial modules.
    • Microfab makes heads for solvent-based and thermo-plastics.
  • Add a CNC XYZ-stage to create your own printer.
roll your own 3d printers19
Roll-your-own 3D Printers
  • Polymer electronics is printable with microfab heads, working on actuators.
  • Potential for printing complete electro-mechanical systems.
  • Two prototype printersat Berkeley.
3d printer disadvantages
3D Printer Disadvantages
  • Slow! Adding material is much slower than removing it.
  • Speed scales very poorly with resolution: double resolution and decrease speed by 8x.
  • Laser 3D methods faster (than other heads) for equivalent resolution, but limited materials.
3d printing data
3D Printing Data
  • The standard 3D printing format is “STL”.
  • Available as an output option for most CAD tools, as a 3rd-party translator for Maya.
  • Then process-specific CAM software (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) creates a tool control file:
    • Tool path for milling and lathing.
    • Slices and support structures for 3D printers.
summary
Summary
  • CNC machines provide shape programmability.
  • Lathes and mills provide traditional shaping.
  • Layered methods can create almost unlimited shapes, but slowly.
  • 2D and 3D shaping methods generally based on CNC motion of an active head.
  • Architecture of shaping machines is open: movement and heads are available separately.