Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Mark Gibney (UNC-Asheville) Reed Wood (UNC-Chapel Hill) Linda Cornett (UNC-Asheville) ). Measuring Violations of Physical Integrity Rights: The Political Terror Scale (PTS). Inspiration and History of the Political Terror Scale.
Reed Wood (UNC-Chapel Hill)
Linda Cornett (UNC-Asheville)
The PTS measures state-sanctioned killings, torture, disappearances and political imprisonment t, using a five point coding scheme adopted from a “political terror” scale published by Freedom House in its 1980 yearbook.
In the construction of this index for each year, each report is scaled as if the information in the reports is accurate and complete.
Ultimately, must rely heavily on inter-subjective coding to generate a country's score, largely because the contextual factors found in the reports effectively prohibit purely objective coding criteria
LEVEL 1 :
Jordan (State Department 1997): Since the revocation of martial law in 1991, there has been noticeable improvement in the human rights situation, however, problems remain, including: abuse and mistreatment of detainees; arbitrary arrest and detention; lack of accountability within the security services; prolonged detention without charge; lack of due process; infringements on citizens' privacy rights; harassment of opposition political parties; and restrictions on the freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association. Citizens do not have the right to change their form of government, although they can participate in the political system through political parties and municipal and parliamentary elections. New restrictions on the press decreed by the King in May shutdown many smaller publications and led the others to practice increased self-censorship. In reaction to these limitations and to the "one-man, one-vote" change in the election process, the Islamist and other parties boycotted the October parliamentary elections. Abuse of foreign servants is a problem. Restrictions on women's rights, violence against women, and abuse of children are also problems. The Government imposes some limits on freedom of religion, and there is official discrimination against adherents of the Baha'i faith.
LEVEL 2 :
Bahrain (Amnesty 2001): Significant steps were taken in 2001 to promote and protect human rights. All political prisoners and detainees were released and the State Security Court and state security legislation were abolished. Bahraini nationals who had been forcibly exiled or prevented from entering the country were allowed to return without conditions. An Ethiopian woman remained under sentence of death. In December, two people . . . were said to have been subjected to beatings by police officers. . . . They were detained for two days before they were released on bail.
LEVEL 4 :
Chad (State Department 1999): The Government's human rights record remained poor, and there continued to be serious problems in many areas. The Government limited citizens' right to change the government. State security forces continue to commit extrajudicial killings, and they torture, beat, abuse, and rape persons. Prison conditions remain harsh and life threatening. Security forces continued to use arbitrary arrest and detention. Although the Government detains and imprisons members of the security forces implicated or accused of criminal acts, it rarely prosecutes or sanctions members of the security forces who committed human rights abuses.
Cambodia (State Department 2001): The Government generally respected the human rights of its citizens in a few areas; however, its record was poor in many other areas, and serious problems remained. The military forces and police were responsible for both political and nonpolitical killings, and the Government rarely prosecuted anyone in such cases. There were other apparently politically motivated killings by nonsecurity force persons as well. The Government arrested suspects in some of these cases and convicted suspects in two such cases. Police acquiesced in or failed to stop lethal violence by citizens against criminal suspects; the Government rarely investigated such killings, and impunity remained a problem. There were credible reports that members of the security forces tortured, beat, and otherwise abused persons in custody, often to extract confessions. Prison conditions remained harsh, and the Government continued to use arbitrary arrest and prolonged pretrial detention. Impunity for many who commit human rights abuses remained a serious problem.
Colombia (Amnesty International 2001): Colombia's internal conflict continued to escalate. Systematic and gross abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law persisted. Paramilitary groups acting with the active or tacit support of the security forces were responsible for the vast majority of extrajudicial executions and ''disappearances''; many of their victims were tortured before being killed. Armed opposition groups were responsible for violations of international humanitarian law, including arbitrary or deliberate killings. More than 300 people ''disappeared'' and more than 4,000 civilians were killed outside of combat for political motives by the armed groups. Over 1,700 people were kidnapped by armed opposition groups and paramilitary forces. All parties to the conflict were responsible for the forced displacement of large numbers of civilians. The security situation of those living in conflict zones, particularly human rights defenders, trade unionists, judicial officials, journalists, members of Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities and peasant farmers, continued to worsen. Evidence emerged of the strong links between the security forces and the paramilitaries. Judicial and disciplinary investigations advanced in several high-profile cases, implicating high-ranking officials in human rights violations, but impunity remained widespread.
CIRI explicitly disaggregates physical integrity violations
CIRI attempts to establish more precise threshold values for each category of intensity
the datasets differ in their underlying logic
PTS relies on the three conceptual components discussed above and presents a standards-based ranking of government abuses
the CIRI explicitly assesses the frequency and types of government abuse practices.
Imagine that in country A, security officials storm a labor rally and kill 100 labor union members. In the country B, however, 100 labor union members are arrested, then tortured, and then killed.
US STATE DEPT.
Democratic Republic of the Congo 5
Sri Lanka 5
Central African Republic 4
Israel and Occupied Territories** 4
Ivory Coast 4
North Korea 4