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The First U.S. Presidencies. America’s 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd Presidents: Washington, Adams and Jefferson. Bill of Rights – 1 st Amendment. Combination of five basic freedoms Put in your own words! Do Americans have an absolute right to free speech? Schenck v. United States.

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The first u s presidencies

The First U.S. Presidencies

America’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd Presidents:

Washington, Adams and Jefferson

Bill of rights 1 st amendment
Bill of Rights – 1st Amendment

  • Combination of five basic freedoms

  • Put in your own words!

  • Do Americans have an absolute right to free speech?

    • Schenck v. United States

Bill of rights 4 th amendment
Bill of Rights – 4th Amendment

  • “Search and seizure”

  • Put in your own words!

  • Can the police search your car without a court-issued search warrant when they stop you for speeding?

Beyond the bill of rights other amendments to the constitution
Beyond the Bill of Rights:Other Amendments to the Constitution

  • Amendment 12 – Election of Executives (1804)

  • Amendment 13 – Slavery abolished (1865)

  • Amendment 14 – Civil Rights (1868)

  • Amendment 15 – Right to Vote (1870)

  • Amendment 16 Income Tax (1913)

  • Amendment 18 – Prohibition (1919)

  • Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage (1920)

  • Amendment 21 – Repeal of Prohibition (1933)

  • Amendment 26 – 18-Year-Old Vote (1971)

  • Amendment 27 – Congressional Pay (1992)

Washington as president 1789 1797 a precedent setter
Washington as President, 1789-1797:A Precedent Setter

A. Cabinet: President’s chief advisors

  • Secretary of State  Thomas Jefferson

  • Secretary of War  Henry Knox

  • Secretary of Treasury  Alexander Hamilton

    B. Judiciary Act of 1789: outlined the makeup of the Supreme Court and established lower federal courts

    C. Bill of Rights: Passed by Congress as a result of the ratification debates between Federalists & Anti-Federalists.

Why does washington have a federalist and antifederalist in his cabinet

Alexander Hamilton

Married into wealth

Believed in a strong central government

Favored commerce and industry (north!)

Devised a National Bank

Thomas Jefferson

Spoke for the “common man”

Believed in states’ rights

Represented farming interests (south!)

Felt the Constitution did not allow for the creation of a National Bank

Why does Washington have a Federalist and Antifederalist in his Cabinet?

Ii rise of political parties a conflict between hamilton jefferson is rising
II. Rise of Political PartiesA. Conflict between Hamilton & Jefferson is rising…

  • Hamilton’s plan to pay back debt and build a successful economy:

    • Impose tariffs to pay debts and increase manufacturing

    • Create a national bank to manage the country’s finances

  • Jefferson OPPOSED Hamilton’s plan, saying the establishment of a national bank was not a power specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

  • Hamilton’s program wins when it is promised that the nation’s capital be moved southward…

“Compromise of 1790” = debate over national bank leads to establishment the capital at Washington, DC

Whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion to establishment the capital at Washington, DC

  • Debate comes to a boil with new tax on whiskey!

    • Farmers rebel against the tax

    • President Washington sent nearly 13,000 troops west to end rebellion and uphold the tax law

Thinking critically
Thinking Critically first political parties:

  • What were the major differences between the Federalists and the Democrat Republicans?

  •  Though George Washington supported most Federalist beliefs, he refused to declare himself a Federalist. Why do you think this was so?

Washington s farewell address 1796
Washington’s “Farewell Address” 1796 first political parties:

Main points:

Washington warned against “political partisanship.”

He encouraged Americans to avoid “entangling alliances.”

Washington warned against secession. “Stay loyal to the union.”

Washington warned against sectionalism.

John adams as president 1797 1801
John Adams as President, 1797-1801 first political parties:

  • Election of 1796

    • President John Adams, Federalist

    • Vice president Thomas Jefferson, Democratic-Republican.

    • 12th amendment (1804): president and vice president officially elected on separate ballots.

  • Sectionalism: Placing interests of one region over the nation as a whole

    • Almost all electors from south voted for Jefferson (Democrat-Republican) while all in north voted for Adams (Federalist)

Politics and style
Politics and Style first political parties:

  • Look at the images on page 191 of your text.

  • What differences can be seen from examining the clothing of the Democrat-Republicans and the Federalists?

Thomas jefferson the election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson & first political parties:The Election of 1800

“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

  • Peaceful transition of power to the Democratic-Republicans

  • Shirk the government and cut costs where ever possible:

    • major cuts to army/navy

    • ended taxes on stamps, land and whiskey

  • Changes in style  presidential handshake

  • “The Revolution of 1800 was as real a Revolution in the principles of our government as that of 1776 was in its form.” – T. Jefferson

John marshall s supreme court
John Marshall’s Supreme Court first political parties:

  • Chief Justice appointee in Adam’s last days in office

  • Established the power of the Supreme Court

    • Power of judicial review  Supreme Court to judge whether actions of President, laws of congress or laws passed by states are constitutional

    • Federal law superior to state law

Landmark decision marbury v madison 1803
Landmark Decision: Marbury v. Madison (1803) first political parties:

  • The facts:

    • William Marbury denied “justice of the peace” position by Jefferson administration

    • Brought suit against Secretary of State James Madison

  • The Issue:

    • Argued that Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Supreme Court power to make a government official perform certain duty

  • The Decision:

    • Supreme Court found Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

    • Established judicial branch as equal partner in government – Not the states (as Jeffersonians had tried to establish)

The louisiana purchase america expands west
The Louisiana Purchase: first political parties:America Expands West

  • 1800 - Louisiana from Spain to Napoleon Bonaparte

  • 1803 - James Monroe/Robert Livingston to buy New Orleans & as much land as possible for $10 million

  • Facing slave revolts in

    Haiti and needing $ to

    fight British, Napoleon

    sells all LA for $15 mill,

    > doubling size of the US

    Why might the LA Purchase have been an

    embarrassment to Jefferson?

Toussaint L’ouverture, the “George Washington” of Haiti.

Napoleon, Emperor of France, 1799-1814

Lewis clark expedition
Lewis & Clark Expedition Haiti.

  • 1804, Jefferson sends Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory

    • “Corps of Discovery”

    • Collect scientific data and learn about Native Americans

    • Sacajawea, a Native American woman, joined the expedition as a translator and guide

  • Should the government have a role in the exploration of little-known places today?

War of 1812 the war hawks demand war
War of 1812: Haiti. The War Hawks Demand War

  • Pres. James Madison called for a declaration of war in 1812

    • Blockade

    • Impressment

    • To gain more territory in the US

    • “War Hawks”

  • Dangerous  came very close to Revolutionary War

  • Battle of New Orleans – American victory led by Andrew Jackson

  • Burning of Washington, DC by the British

    • “Star Spangled Banner”

Congress declares war june 12 th 1812 war of 1812 fought from 1811 1815
Congress Declares War, June 12 Haiti. th, 1812“War of 1812” fought from 1811-1815

  • USA vs. Great Britain—AGAIN!

  • Causes—The “War Hawks” of the West and South

    wanted war because:

    • Britain seized American ships

    • Chesapeake incident (1807)

      • British attacked U.S. ship off VA

      • 3 Ams killed, 18 wounded, 4 “deserters” taken.

    • Impressment

      • Est. 6,000 Americans impressed b/n 1808-1811!

    • British Canadians supplied arms to Native Americans.

Causes of the war of 1812
Causes of the War of 1812 Haiti.

  • British Canadian support of Native Americans

  • Seizure of American ships

  • British impressment of American sailors

Significant events
Significant Events Haiti.

  • Washington DC burned in 1814

  • British attack on Ft. McHenry inspires national

    anthem “Star Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key.

  • Battle of New Orleans (Jan. 1815)

    • 8,000 Brits launch frontal assault on 7,000 Ams.

    • 2,000 Brit casualties vs. 70 Ams!!!!!

    • Made Andrew Jackson a war hero!

Results of the war of 1812
Results of the War of 1812: Haiti.

Upsurge in American nationalism.

Treaty of Ghent (1814)

“Status quo ante bellum” no territory gained or lost.

Both sides agreed to stop the fighting.

Monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine Haiti.

  • Why issued?

  • Basic principles?