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Chapter 9. Facility Layout. Objectives of Facility Layout. Minimize material handling costs Utilize space efficiently Utilize labor efficiently Eliminate bottlenecks

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Facility Layout

objectives of facility layout
Objectives of Facility Layout

Minimize material handling costs

Utilize space efficiently

Utilize labor efficiently

Eliminate bottlenecks

Facilitate communication and interaction between workers, between workers and their supervisors, or between workers and customers

Reduce manufacturing cycle time or customer service time

objectives of facility layout3
Objectives of Facility Layout

Eliminate waste or redundant movement

Facilitate the entry, exit, and placement of material, products, or people

Incorporate safety and security measures

Promote product and service quality

Encourage proper maintenance activities

Provide a visual control of operations or activities

Provide flexibility to adapt to changing conditions

Increase capacity

basic types of layouts
Basic Types of Layouts

Process Layout

Machines grouped by process they perform

Product Layout

Linear arrangement of workstations to produce a specific product

Fixed Position Layout

Used in projects where the product cannot be moved

manufacturing process layout

Milling

Department

Lathe Department

Drilling Department

M

M

D

D

D

D

L

L

M

M

D

D

D

D

L

L

G

G

G

P

L

L

G

G

G

P

L

L

Painting Department

Grinding

Department

L

L

A

A

A

Receiving and

Shipping

Assembly

Manufacturing Process Layout
comparison of product and process layouts

PRODUCT LAYOUT PROCESS LAYOUT

Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts

1. Description Sequential arrangement Functional grouping

of machines of machines

2. Type of Process Continuous, mass Intermittent, job shop

production, mainly batch production,

assembly mainly fabrication

3. Product Standardized Varied,

made to stock made to order

4. Demand Stable Fluctuating

5. Volume High Low

6. Equipment Special purpose General purpose

7. Workers Limited skills Varied skills

comparison of product and process layouts8

PRODUCT LAYOUT PROCESS LAYOUT

Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts

8. Inventory Low in-process, High in-process,

high finished goods low finished goods

9. Storage space Small Large

10. Material Fixed path Variable path

handling (conveyor) (forklift)

11. Aisles Narrow Wide

12. Scheduling Part of balancing Dynamic

13. Layout decision Line balancing Machine location

14. Goal Equalize work at Minimize material

each station handling cost

15. Advantage Efficiency Flexibility

fixed position layouts
Fixed-Position Layouts

Typical of projects

Equipment, workers, materials, other resources brought to the site

Highly skilled labor

Often low fixed costs

Typically high variable costs

line balancing
Line Balancing
  • Precedence diagram
    • Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance
  • Cycle time
    • Maximum time product spends at any one workstation
line balancing11

production time available

desired units of output

Cd =

(8 hours x 60 minutes / hour)

(120 units)

Cd =

480

120

Cd= = 4 minutes

Line Balancing

Cycle time example

  • Precedence diagram
    • Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance
  • Cycle time
    • Maximum time product spends at any one workstation
flow time vs cycle time
Flow Time vs Cycle Time

Cycle time = max time spent at any station

Flow time = time to complete all stations

flow time vs cycle time13

1

2

3

4 minutes

3 minutes

4 minutes

Flow Time vs Cycle Time

Cycle time = max time spent at any station

Flow time = time to complete all stations

Flow time = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 minutes

Cycle time = max (4, 3, 4) = 4 minutes

line balancing14

WORK ELEMENT PRECEDENCE TIME (MIN)

A Press out sheet of fruit — 0.1

B Cut into strips A 0.2

C Outline fun shapes A 0.4

D Roll up and package B, C 0.3

Line Balancing
line balancing15

WORK ELEMENT PRECEDENCE TIME (MIN)

A Press out sheet of fruit — 0.1

B Cut into strips A 0.2

C Outline fun shapes A 0.4

D Roll up and package B, C 0.3

0.2

B

A

0.3

0.1

D

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Example 5.2

line balancing16

WORK ELEMENT PRECEDENCE TIME (MIN)

A Press out sheet of fruit — 0.1

B Cut into strips A 0.2

C Outline fun shapes A 0.4

D Roll up and package B, C 0.3

0.2

0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4

0.4

B

2400

6000

40 hours x 60 minutes / hour

6,000 units

Cd = = = 0.4 minute

A

0.3

0.1

D

1.0

0.4

N = = = 2.5 workstations

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Example 5.2

line balancing17

WORK ELEMENT PRECEDENCE TIME (MIN)

A Press out sheet of fruit — 0.1

B Cut into strips A 0.2

C Outline fun shapes A 0.4

D Roll up and package B, C 0.3

0.2

0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4

0.4

B

2400

6000

40 hours x 60 minutes / hour

6,000 units

Cd = = = 0.4 minute

A

0.3

0.1

D

1.0

0.4

N = = = 2.5 workstations

C

0.4

Line Balancing

3 workstations

Example 5.2

line balancing18

WORK ELEMENT PRECEDENCE TIME (MIN)

A Press out sheet of fruit — 0.1

B Cut into strips A 0.2

C Outline fun shapes A 0.4

D Roll up and package B, C 0.3

0.2

B

A

0.3

0.1

D

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

line balancing19

0.2

B

A

0.3

0.1

D

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

line balancing20

0.2

B

A

0.3

0.1

D

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

line balancing21

0.2

B

A

0.3

0.1

D

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

line balancing22

Work station 1

Work station 2

Work station 3

0.3 minute

0.4 minute

0.3 minute

0.2

B

A, B

A

0.3

0.1

D

D

C

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

efficiency of line

Minimum number of workstations

Efficiency

i

i= 1

i

i= 1

ti

ti

N =

E =

nCa

Cd

Efficiency of Line

where

ti = completion time for element i

j = number of work elements

n = actual number of workstations

Ca = actual cycle time

Cd = desired cycle time

line balancing24

Work station 1

Work station 2

Work station 3

0.3 minute

0.4 minute

0.3 minute

0.2

0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4

3(0.4)

B

A, B

1.0

1.2

A

0.3

0.1

D

E = = = 0.833 = 83.3%

D

C

C

0.4

Line Balancing

Cd = 0.4

N = 2.5

line balancing process
Line Balancing Process

1. Draw and label a precedence diagram.

2. Calculate the desired cycle time required for the line.

3. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations.

4. Group elements into workstations, recognizing cycle time and precedence constraints.

5. Calculate the efficiency of the line.

6. Stop if theoretical minimum number of workstations or an acceptable efficiency level reached. If not, go back to step 4.

process layout example
Process Layout Example

Arrange six departments in a factory to minimize the material handling costs. Each department is 20 x 20 feet and the building is 60 feet long and 40 feet wide.

Construct a “from-to matrix”

Determine the space requirements

Develop an initial schematic diagram

Determine the cost of this layout

Try to improve the layout

Prepare a detailed plan

process layout example27

Number of loads per week

Department Assembly Painting Machine Receiving Shipping Testing

(1) (2) Shop (3) (4) (5) (6)

Assembly (1)

Painting (2)

Machine Shop (3)

Receiving (4)

Shipping (5)

Testing (6)

Process Layout Example

50 100 0 0 20

30 50 10 0

20 0 100

50 0

0

Figure 9.4

process layout example28

Room 1 Room 2 Room 3

Room 4 Room 5 Room 6

40’

60’

Process Layout Example

Assembly Painting Machine Shop

Department Department Department

(1) (2) (3)

Receiving Shipping Testing

Department Department Department

(4) (5) (6)

Figure 9.5

process layout example29

n

i = 1

n

j = 1

Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cij

Process Layout Example

Cost = $50 + $200 + $40

(1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6)

+ $30 + $50 + $10

(2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5)

+ $40 + $100 + $50

(3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5)

= $570

process layout example30

100

50

30

1

2

3

20

20

10

50

100

4

5

6

50

Process Layout Example

Interdepartmental Flow Graph

Figure 9.6

process layout example31

n

i = 1

n

j = 1

Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cij

Process Layout Example

Cost = $50 + $100 + $20

(1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6)

+ $60 + $50 + $10

(2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5)

+ $40 + $100 + $50

(3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5)

= $480

process layout example32

30

50

100

2

1

3

10

20

50

100

50

50

4

5

6

Process Layout Example

Interdepartmental Flow Graph

Figure 9.7

process layout example33

Room 1 Room 2 Room 3

Room 4 Room 5 Room 6

40’

60’

Process Layout Example

Painting Assembly Machine Shop

Department Department Department

(2) (1) (3)

Receiving Shipping Testing

Department Department Department

(4) (5) (6)

Figure 9.8

using excel om
Using Excel OM
  • Use Operations Layout Macro
  • # of departments should be # of rooms
  • Input flows as given
  • Make sure distance table is symmetric
  • To model adjacency, put a distance of 1 for non-adjacent departments, 0 for adjacent departments
  • Or use regular distance
relationship diagramming
Relationship Diagramming

Used when quantitative data is not available

Muther’s grid displays preferences

Denote location preferences with weighted lines

relationship diagramming example

Production

Offices

Stockroom

Shipping and receiving

Locker room

Toolroom

Relationship Diagramming Example
relationship diagramming example37

Production

O

A

Offices

U

I

E

O

Stockroom

A

A

X

Shipping and receiving

U

U

U

O

O

Locker room

O

Toolroom

Relationship Diagramming Example

A Absolutely necessary

E Especially important

I Important

O Okay

U Unimportant

X Undesirable

relationship diagrams

Offices

Locker room

Shipping and receiving

Key: A

E

I

O

U

X

Stockroom

Toolroom

Production

Relationship Diagrams

(a) Relationship diagram of original layout

Figure 5.6

relationship diagrams39

Stockroom

Offices

Shipping and receiving

Key: A

E

I

O

U

X

Toolroom

Production

Locker room

Relationship Diagrams

(b) Relationship diagram of revised layout

Figure 5.6

using excel om40
Using Excel OM
  • Operations Layout Macro can be used for Relationship Diagrams too
  • Make distance table like before
  • For flows table, use dummy flows:
    • A = 100,000 O = 100
    • E = 10,000 U = 10
    • I = 1,000 X = 0