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ANCIENT GREECE. With a neighbor, explain how the geography affected the development of Ancient Greece. The Geography of Greece. The Mountains ¾ of the land Little farmland (few streams) supported a small population) Divided into city-states (polis) Never united into one country

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slide2

ANCIENT

GREECE

slide4

The Geography of Greece

  • The Mountains
    • ¾ of the land
    • Little farmland (few streams) supported a small population)
    • Divided into city-states (polis)
    • Never united into one country
  • The Sea
    • Great sailors
    • Traded for things they didn’t have
slide5

Geography

Troy

Aegean Sea

Athens

Ionian Sea

Sparta

Crete

Mediterranean Sea

slide6

What was the origin and structure of the Greek polis?

  • Polis: city-state
  • By 750 BC- fundamental political unit in ancient Greece
  • Made up of a city and its surrounding countryside- including numerous villages
    • Athens, Sparta, Ithaca
  • Where did they meet to discuss issues?
    • Acropolis: the highest and most fortified place in the city
    • Slide 21
slide7

What was the origin and structure of the Greek polis?

  • Why did these develop?
    • They began to identify with the local area in which they lived
  • Different types:
    • Monarchy- rule by king
    • Aristocracy – rule by rich people
    • Oligarchy – rule by a small group of people
    • Tyrant – a dictator
slide8

Review:

What was the polis?

What was the acropolis?

slide10

Describe polytheism in the Greek world

  • POLYTHEISTIC
  • Greeks developed a rich set of myths (stories) about their gods
  • Gave gods human qualities:
    • Love, hate, jealousy
  • Lived forever
  • Mount Olympus- where the gods lived
  • Gods were worshiped in temples
    • Use of oracles as mediums
slide11

Hera

Zeus

Athena

Hercules

slide12

Archaic Greece:

1650 BCE - 700 BCE

slide20

"Hellenic"

(Classical)

Greece:

700 BCE - 324 BCE

slide21

ATHENS: Yesterday & Today

Back to the polis…

slide24

Early Athenian Lawgivers

  • Draco
    • Promoted the idea that all people are equal under the law
    • Promoted the use of capital punishment
  • Solon
    • Changes to the government
    • Gave citizens a greater voice
  • Cleisthenes
    • created the first democracy!
slide26

Persian Wars: Famous Battles

  • Marathon (490 BCE)
    • 26 miles from Athens
  • Thermopylae (480 BCE)
    • 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass
  • Salamis (480 BCE)
    • Athenian navy victorious
slide27

Outcome of the Persian Wars

  • Delian League: collaboration of Greek city-states to fight the Persians
  • After the Persians were defeated, Athens became the strongest city-state and as a result, entered into…
slide29

Pericles- wise and able statesman who had 3 goals:

1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy

2. Hold & Strengthen the empire

3. Glorify Athens

  • Strengthen Democracy
    • Increased number of public officials who were paid- poor could serve
    • Introduces Direct Democracy
  • Athenian Empire
    • Formed Delian League- used $ from treasury to make Navy strongest in Mediterranean
  • Glorify Athens
    • Used treasury money to beautify Athens.
slide30

Philosophy

  • Philo = love
  • Soph = wisdom
slide31

Great Athenian Philosophers

  • Socrates
    • Know thyself!
    • question everything  “Socratic method”
    • Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice
    • Died by poison
  • Plato
    • Student of Socrates
    • The Academy
    • The Republic philosopher-king (person with greatest insight)
slide32

Great Athenian Philosophers

  • Aristotle
    • Student of Plato
    • The Lyceum school
    • Questioned the nature of the world and of human thought
    • Provides the basis of the Scientific Method.
    • Alexander the Great was his student
slide34

Athens: The Arts & Sciences

  • DRAMA (tragedians):
    • Tragedies
    • Comedies
  • THE SCIENCES:
    • PythagorasPythagorean Theorem!
      • A2 + B2 = C2
    • Democritusall mattermade up of small atoms
    • Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”
slide35

The Classical Greek “Ideal”

Classical Greek art was focused on idealism and beauty.

slide36

Phidias’ Acropolis

The acropolis was the fortified hilltop area of the city-state.

slide38

The Acropolis Today

Back to the polis!

slide39

The Parthenon

The Parthenon was a temple built to the Athenian patron goddess, Athena.

slide41

The Agora

Housed in the acropolis was the agora, or the marketplace, where men frequented to buy/sell or discuss politics.

slide42

Olympia

This was the site of the Olympic games that the Greeks attended every year. Though they fought each other, they would cease war just for the Olympic games.

slide45

Athens’ strength became their weakness, and other Greek city-states grew tired of their power…

slide46

Peloponnesian Wars

Athens vs. Sparta

Sparta grows tired of

Athenian domination of the Delian League

slide48

Peloponnesian War Ends Golden Age

  • Athens had stronger navy while Sparta had stronger army
  • Sparta burned Athens
  • Pericles responded by bringing residents into city walls
  • However, the plague struck and Pericles died
  • War continues for year but eventually leads to a truce
  • Sparta wins the war, but all of Greece is weakened as a result, leaving the door open for…
slide50

Macedonia Under Philip II

PHILIP II CONQUERS GREECE.

Philip II hated the Greeks because they looked down on the Macedonians, seeing them as uncivilized foreigners (even though many Macedonians saw themselves as Greek)

slide51

Philip II of Macedon

  • Becomes king of Macedonia in 359BC
  • Quickly proved to be a brilliant general and ruthless politician
  • Was seen as a threat to Greece by some, but the Greek city-states could not agree on a course of action.
  • Philip defeats the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea, ending Greek independence.
  • Philip is assassinated at his daughters wedding! No daddy/daughter dance!

Ow! My eyeball!

slide53

"Hellenistic"

Greece:

324 BCE - 100 BCE

slide54

Alexander defeats Persia

  • Conquered the lands from Greece to the Indus Valley
    • Smashed the Persians, Egypt (crowned him pharaoh), Babylon, Indus River Valley

-His soldiers fought for 11 years

-They miss their families and beg Alexander to go home

-Alexander agrees, but never makes it home. He dies of syphillis at the age of 32!

slide56

The Hellenization of Asia

Hellenism: blend of Greek and Eastern (Persian, Egyptian, and Indian) cultures

slide57

Diffusion of Greek culture

  • Greek culture and language traveled with Alexander’s army (notice the influence of his teacher, Aristotle!)
  • The blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences became known as Hellenistic culture
  • New blended language
  • Alexandria- Egyptian city became an international community with diverse population; home to some of the world’s foremost scholars!
the colossus of rhodes
The Colossus of Rhodes

A 100 ft. tall

Bronze Statue

Toppled by an earthquake

In 225 BC

slide62

Hellenistic Philosophers

  • Diogenes promotes Cynicism
    • ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.
    • citizens of the world.
    • live a humble, simple life.
  • Epicurus  Promotes philosophy of Epicureanism
    • Avoid pain & seek pleasure.
    • Advocated moderation in all things
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Hellenistic Philosophers

  • Zeno- Promotes philosophy of Stoicism
    • People should live virtuous lives in harmony with God’s will
    • Human desires should be kept in check
    • Hence the phrase: “He is a stoic individual.”
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Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences

  • Scientists / Mathematicians:
    • Aristarchus  heliocentric theory
    • Euclid  geometry
    • Archimedes  pulley
  • Hellenistic Art:
    • More realistic; less ideal than classical art
    • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!
slide65

What is Hellenism? How did Alexander the Great’s conquest lead to cultural diffusion?What were some characteristics of Hellenistic Greece?

alexander s legacy
Alexander’s Legacy
  • After his death, Alexander’s generals fight for control of the vast empire
  • Three rise to the top:
  • Antigonus- took control of Macedonia and the Greek city-states
  • Ptolemy- took control of Egypt
  • Seleucus- took control of the old Persian Empire
who s next
Who’s Next?
  • As Hellenistic Greece begins to fade in power around 150 B.C., a new power begins to rise…
  • ROME!