A WORLDWIDE AND COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN THE ROLE OF NON-NUCLEAR-WEAPON STATES Randy Rydell Ph. D. UN Department for Disarmament Affairs Statement at the Organization of American States Committee on Hemispheric Security 15 March 2007
NUCLEAR WEAPONS • … un atentado a la integridad de la especie humana y aún pueden tornar finalmente toda la Tierra inhabitable. Preamble, Treaty of Tlatelolco
The Nuclear Weapon ChallengeMore than “Falling into the Wrong Hands” • “The mere existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to all humanity …” Resolved, in Santiago de Chile Declaration (Opanal General Conference, 2005) • WMD (Blix) Commission, 2006
MEETING THE CHALLENGE • Technical -- verification, irreversibility • Economic -- dismantling and disposal • Military -- security without the bomb • Political -- networks in and among states
NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT AND THE RULE OF LAW • First UNGA Resolution (1946) • Countless UNGA resolutions to follow • 5 NWFZ treaties • NPT • 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion • NPT: 1995 and 2000 Commitments
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND NUCLEAR TESTS Goal found in a dozen global treaties: • CTBT and PTBT • NPT -- part of 1995 ‘package deal’ • 5 NWFZ treaties • Antarctic and Seabed treaties • Moon and Outer Space treaties UNGA resolutions, recently Res. 61/104 • Adopted by vote of 172-2-4 (2006)
Goals of a CTBT SHORT TERM: ban all nuclear tests MEDIUM TERM: nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation LONG TERM: “General and Complete Disarmament”
BENEFITS OF A CTBT • Prevent “vertical” proliferation • Reinforce norm against possession • Advance non-proliferation goals • Environment, health, and safety
Building on Tlatelolco • Pelindaba and Semipalatinsk: entry into force • Universal regional membership • P5 ratification of Protocols • Promote new zones: Southern Hemisphere, Middle East, South Asia, Northeast Asia • Explore WMD-free zone concept
Progress on WMD-free Zones • Long-standing goal in the Middle East, recognized by all states • “We declare our objective to make the Americas a region free of biological and chemical weapons.” - Declaration on Security in the Americas (2003) • A model WMD-free zone treaty? Keep the nuclear disarmament priority, and coordinate with international WMD regimes.
Coordinated efforts needed on many levels • Unilateral • Bilateral • Plurilateral • Regional • Multilateral/global
Importance of Expanding Participation • Parliamentarians, mayors, governors • Networking among diverse NGOs • Expanded support from foundations • Coordinated action in multilateral fora • High-level policy statements • Education and training
Conclusion • “Security is strengthened when we deepen its human dimension.”Declaration on Security in the Americas (2003) • Freeing the world from WMD requires sustained efforts at all political levels -- grassroots to global • The OAS has shown how regional action can advance global norms -- a strong foundation for meeting the WMD challenges ahead.