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GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

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  1. GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Honey Mira Karina Pineda Betina Taylo

  2. Definition of Terms Gender equality- “removing all obstacles to women’s active participation in all spheres of public and private life through an equal share in economic, social, cultural and political decision making” Wage employment- “remuneration by hours worked or items produced, independent of profits or expectations of profits” Non-agricultural sector- “industry and services” Sources: www.unescap.org and www.wikigender.org

  3. To promote gender equality and empower women by 2015 Target 3.A eliminate gender disparity in elementary and secondary education preferably by 2005, but no later than 2015 Indicators: 3.1a ratio of girls to boys in primary education 3.1b ratio of girls to boys in secondary education 3.1c ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education 3.2 share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 3.3 proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

  4. Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c Target for Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c: 1.0 Performance per region Source: NSCB Progress Report (July 2010)

  5. Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c Source: NSCB Fact Sheet March 19, 2009

  6. Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c Source: NSCB Fact Sheet March 1, 2010

  7. Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c 3.1a ratio of girls to boys in primary education • The number of girls enrolled in primary education either equal to or exceed that of boys • In the years 2005 and 2008, the ratio of girls to boys was 0.99. • It is 0.01 less than the target number 3.1b ratio of girls to boys in secondary education • It has slightly decreased from 2005 to 2008, having gone from a 1.12 to a 1.1 • It is still close to the target number

  8. Why is this good? 3.1a ratio of girls to boys in primary education • More girls are learning necessary skills such as reading, writing, arithmetic, etc. • Their moral foundation is being properly monitored by credible authorities (i.e. teachers) 3.1b ratio of girls to boys in secondary education • More girls tend to delay early marriage • They are more informed on several issues such as their body, their rights, current events, etc. • They have more chances of getting good jobs compared to dropouts or non-students

  9. Indicators 3.1a to 3.1c 3.1c ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education • The results are average • More girls completed their undergraduate studies by 0.5 and their graduate studies by 1.6 in 2009 • There were 3.2 more male graduates than female graduates in 2010 • This shows that many girls had dropped out • In 2005, the general ratio was 1.23 and increased to 1.24 in 2008 • The statistics show that the country is slightly going farther from its goal, which is 1.0

  10. Why is this happening? • Generally, more girls are enrolled in tertiary education because boys tend to drop out in order to start working • This is because of the poor’s mentality that the men of the family have to provide (and that includes sons, normally the eldest son) • Instead of studying college, boys would rather have their younger siblings be educated and at least finish high school • That is why more girls are left in college

  11. Summary of Statistics Ratio of girls to boys in primary education Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education 2005: 0.99 2008: 0.99 2015: 1.0 Remaining: 0.01 2005: 1.12 2008: 1.09 2015: 1.0 Remaining: -0.09 2005: 1.23 2008: 1.24 2015: 1.0 Remaining: -0.24

  12. Indicator 3.2 Source: NSCB Fact Sheet March 19, 2009

  13. Indicator 3.2 Source: NSCB Fact Sheet March 1, 2010

  14. Indicator 3.2

  15. Indicator 3.2 Source: www.bles.dole.gov.ph/mdg/CHARTS.pptx

  16. Indicator 3.2 • Method of computation: (Number of woman in paid employment in the nonagricultural sector ÷ Total number of people in paid employment in the non‐agricultural sector) × 100 Source: http://www.bles.dole.gov.ph/primers/MDG_May2011.pdf • In 2005, the number was 41.4 • It increased to 41.9 in 2008 • Because of this, the country only needs 8.1 to meet its goal of 50.0 • The number of women in the non-agricultural sector has been increasing over time

  17. Summary of Statistics Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 2005: 41.4 2008: 41.9 2015: 50.0 Remaining: 8.1

  18. Why is this good? • This shows that more women are being accepted in industries and services • The idea of the career woman is prevailing • There is a gradual erasure of the “household wife” stereotype • Women can show their talents and skills in different fields • The basis for employment is more on qualifications and capacities rather than gender

  19. Indicator 3.3 Source: NSCB Fact Sheet March 19, 2009 and March 1, 2010

  20. Indicator 3.3 • The statistics depict very depressing results • There are more men than women in politics • The results in 2005 were only 15.3 • On the bright side, it slightly increased to 17.6 in 2007 and 21.0 in 2008 • The country has a long way to go to achieve the target number: 50.0 • This means that women still are not equally represented in politics

  21. Summary of Statistics Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament 2005: 15.3 2008: 21.0 2015: 50.0 Remaining: 29.0

  22. Why is this happening? • According to TWSA Philippines, “Men are traditionally assumed to be the heads of households and organizations and have dominance over the productive sphere, which is given pre-eminence in society. Women are viewed as the “weaker sex” and their capabilities, whether at home or in the public sphere are not recognized”. • Since women are perceived to be subservient and limited in their homes, the idea of having more women in the government is not as easily acceptable • This is despite the fact that we had two female presidents

  23. Analysis • The Philippines has a generally high probability of achieving the third MDG goal by 2015 • Most of the indicators have positive results (i.e. 3.1a, 3.1b, and 3.2) • The average status of 3.1c and the poor status of 3.3 will not be a hindrance • Moreover, the country is slowly getting rid of its “paternal” or male-headed culture and accepting the ideas of gender equality and women empowerment • President Aquino also focused on his anti-corruption and poverty alleviation campaign instead of promoting gender equality and women empowerment

  24. Plans of the government • President Aquino declared that he will allot at least one-third of the national budget to the completion of the MDGs • According to Florencio Abad, secretary of Budget and Management, “P568.6 billion or about 32 percent of the P1.816 trillion General Appropriations Act (GAA) of 2012 will be allocated to the social services sector…the budget for the Department of Education (DepEd) also increased by 15.2 percent to P238.8 billion this year from last year’s P207.3 billion “.

  25. Plans of the government • Signing of bills such as the “An Act Allowing the Employment of Night Workers, Thereby Repealing Articles 130 and 131 of PD 442, As Amended, Otherwise Known as the Labor Code of the Philippines” • This bill lifts the ban of female night workers • It eliminates gender bias, thus giving women equal employment opportunities as men