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Psychoanalysis, Sex and American Culture. Psychoanalytic Journals, 1912/13. International Journal of Psycho-analysis English-language journal, 1920-. BELLEVUE ASYLUM KREUZLINGEN SWITZERLAND c. 1900. Psychoanalytic Clinic, Berlin 1920. Melanie Klein.

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c. 1900

freud g stanley hall carl jung at clark university
Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jungat Clark University

Back row (L to R: A. Brill, E. Jones and Sandor Ferenczi


Freud’s Visit to Clark University

Worcester, Mass September 1909

boston school of psychotherapy morton prince james jackson putnam
Boston School of PsychotherapyMorton Prince James Jackson Putnam

“Journal of Abnormal Psychology” 1906

Painted by John Singer Sargent, 1890s

richard kraft von ebing 1840 1902
Richard Kraft von Ebing (1840-1902)


havelock ellis 1859 1939
Havelock Ellis (1859-1939)

Man and Woman:

A Study of Secondary and

Tertiary Sex

Characteristics (1894)

Sexual Inversion (1897)

Studies in the Psychology

of Sex (1897-1910)

freud s essay on sexuality 1905
Freud’s Essay on Sexuality (1905)

Divided libido, or sexual drive into three aspects:

1. the impulse (operative in perversions, but also psychoneuroses—diseases of repression).

2. the object (the homosexual didn’t differ from others as to drive, but as to object)

3. the origin or body part involved in impulse--explains use of fetish)

Conclusion: That everyone was somewhat perverse—as a result of universal sexual impulse.

american psychoanalytic societies
American Psychoanalytic Societies
  • American Association of Psychoanalysis, 1911.
  • New York Psychoanalytic Society,1911 (15 founding physicians).
  • NY Psychoanalytic Society: all analysts must have analysis with a competent analyst, 1923.
  • NY Psychoanalytic Society decreed practitioners must be physicians, 1924.
early american psychoanalysts
Early American Psychoanalysts
  • James Jackson Putnam—neurologist (Boston)
  • Isador Coriat (Boston) psychoanalysis and literature
  • William Alanson White (head of St. Elizabeth’s, Wash DC) stressed social and environmental causes of mental illness
  • Smith Ely Jelliffe (New York)
  • A.A. Brill (New York) translated Freud’s work in the 1910s
psychoanalysis american style early 20 th century
Psychoanalysis American-Styleearly 20th century
  • All mental disorders (except with definite somatic causes), were interpreted according to model of psychoneuroses (e.g. hysteria, obsessions).
  • Caused by conflicts between wishes (results of instinctual drives) and internal repression
  • Causes traced back to early childhood, usually sexually tinged family relationships
  • Sexuality most important instinctual drive
  • Psychoanalysis was to overcome resistances of patient
  • Dominance of Ego psychology--focus on adaptation of ego to social demands, rather than Id psychology (repressed desires).

Freud’s Draft of a 1926

Encyclopedia Britannica Entry

“Some Elementary Lessons in


Manuscript Division

Library of Congress


Max Eastman,socialist

editor of The Masses, 1913,

on socialism and the arts.

in analysis with:

Smith Ely Jelliffe

editor of Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1902

Developed extensive psychoanalytic practice,NYC

coined term “psychosomatic”

Interpreted Eastman’s neurosis as result of “hostility to the father working itself out in prejudiced radicalism”


Mabel Dodge Luhan

  • salon hostess
  • In Greenwich Village,
  • NYC for social
  • activists and artists.
  • In analysis with:
  • A. Brill &
  • Smith Ely Jelliffe
  • serialized her own
  • psycho-analysis for the
  • Hearst newspapers
  • 1917-1918

André Tridon,

Psychoanalysis and Love


“In the searching light of that

most curious and interesting

new method, psychoanalysis,

the soul of love is laid bare “


Mrs. Marden’s Ordeal


by James Hay

“That a warped childhood is to

contribute in later years to a

warped and tragic


( p. 271)

“You will have to tell me all things…This is to be an analysis of your soul, of the depths of your soul. You will have to tell me what you believe about religion, the most intimate things about your life with your husband, the big things and the little things, sex things and all. You may keep nothing back from me. In this way only can we analyze your soul and see in what way it has gone wrong…You see, you suffer, not because you are sick, but because you are unhappy.”

the Psychoanalyst, in Mrs. Marsden’s Ordeal, p. 5.

more on psychoanalysis and culture
More on Psychoanalysis and Culture
  • Nathan Hale, Freud and the Americans: The beginnings of Psychoanalysis in the United States, 1876-1917 (Oxford, 1971)
  • Nathan Hale, The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis: Freud and the Americans, 1917-1985 ( Oxford, 1995)
  • Eli Zaretsky, Secrets of the Soul: A social and cultural history of psychoanalysis (NY: Vintage Books, 2005)
  • George Makari, Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis ( NY: Harper, 2008)