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Latin America. Latin America After Independence: Colonial Legacy. Colonial times, most Latin Americans worked for large landowners (called peons). Peons were similar to slaves because they went into debt and their debt was passed from generation to generation.

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Latin america after independence colonial legacy
Latin America After Independence: Colonial Legacy

  • Colonial times, most Latin Americans worked for large landowners (called peons).

  • Peons were similar to slaves because they went into debt and their debt was passed from generation to generation.

  • After independence, the rich got richer, with unequal distribution of land and wealth

Political instability
Political Instability

  • Caudillos: dictators that tended to be charismatic military leaders in Latin America.

  • By 1830, nearly all the countries of Latin America were ruled by caudillos.

  • Ex: Juan Vicente Gomez (caudillo in Venezuela for 30 years) “All Venezuela is my cattle ranch.”

Economies grow under foreign influence
Economies Grow Under Foreign Influence

  • Great Britain and the United States became Latin America’s main trading partners.

  • Economies depended on Exports

  • With refrigeration: exports of beef, fruits, vegetables and other perishable goods soared

  • Imported European and North American manufactured goods, so did not develop their own manufacturing industries

Outside investment and interference
Outside Investment and Interference

  • Latin America also borrowed money- at high interest rates- to develop facilities for their export industries.

  • Britain, France, US and Germany made many loans

  • If Latin American countries couldn’t pay back loans, foreign leaders threatened to collect debt by force or take over the facilities

  • Age of Economic Colonialism

The monroe doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine

  • 1823: issued by US President James Monroe

  • “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

  • Wasn’t really enforced until 1898

Cuba declares independence
Cuba Declares Independence

  • Cuba was one of Spain’s last colonies in the Americas

  • 1868 Cuba declared independence and fought a decade long war

  • 1895 Jose Marti, was a famous Cuban writer who lived much of his life in exile in NYC- returned and led fight for Cuban independence, died in battle

  • Spanish had forced many Cubans into Concentration Camps

Spanish american war
Spanish-American War

  • 1898: US joins the Cuban war for independence

  • Lasted about 4 months

  • 1901: Cuba became independent nation, but US installed a military govt., causing resentment

  • US also gained Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines: becoming US territories.

Panama canal
Panama Canal

  • US nicknamed “Colossus of the North”

  • President Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) really wanted to build a Canal.

  • 1903 Panama was a province of Colombia: US offered $ to Colombia to build a canal, Colombia asked for more $, US then encouraged a revolution in Panama.

  • 1903 Panama (with help of US Navy) won independence from Colombia, then gave US a 10 mile wide zone to build the Panama Canal (opened 1914)

Roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary

  • US continued to have large investments in many Central and South American countries.

  • 1904: Teddy Roosevelt issued the corollary, saying the United States had a right to be “an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere.

  • US intervened in many Latin American countries over the next decades.

The mexican revolution
The Mexican Revolution

  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna: played leading role in Mexico’s fight for independence from Spain in 1821, fought again in 1829 against Spain, and then became Mexico’s president in 1830.

  • Santa Anna was a powerful caudillo who ruled Mexico from 1833 to 1855 (taking brief hiatus to fight for Texas)

The texas revolt
The Texas Revolt

  • 1820’s Mexico encouraged American citizens to move to Texas to help populate the country.

  • “Anglos” moved there and promised to follow the laws of Mexico in exchange for inexpensive land

  • Many Anglos wanted to continue to practice slavery, but Mexican govt. had abolished slavery

  • Also conflict over Roman Catholicism

Leadership of texas revolt
Leadership of Texas Revolt

  • Stephen Austin encouraged a revolt against Mexico in 1835

  • Santa Anna led Mexican forces

  • Santa Anna won the Battle of the Alamo, but lost at the Battle of San Jacinto

  • Sam Houston captured and released Santa Anna when he promised to recognize Texas independence

War and fall of santa anna
War and Fall of Santa Anna

  • 1845 US annexed Texas

  • US invaded Mexico

  • Fought for two years

  • 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: US received the northern 1/3 of Mexico including CA and the American Southwest

  • Santa Anna eventually went into exile

Benito juarez
Benito Juarez

  • Zapotec Indian: rose from humble background to being educated as a lawyer, and eventually governor of Oaxaca

  • Led a liberal reform movement. La Reforma: redistribution of land, separation of church and state, increased educational opportunities.

  • 1853 Santa Anna returned and exiled Juarez, two years later, SA ousted and Juarez returned

French invade mexico
French Invade Mexico

  • Conservative upper-class Mexicans were threatened by liberal ideas: conservative rebels fought against the liberal govt.

  • Civil War: liberal govt. won and Juarez took over as President in 1858

  • Mexico was in debt, some conservatives plotted with some Europeans to reconquer Mexico.

Maximilian i
Maximilian I

  • 1862, France under rule of Napoleon III, sent a large army to Mexico and took over the country

  • Napoleon III appointed Austrian archduke Maximilian to rule Mexico as an emperor

  • Civil War continued: 5th de Mayo

  • 1867: France withdrew, Maximilian was captured and executed

  • 1867: Juarez re-elected Mexico’s President

Porfirio diaz and order and progress
Porfirio Diaz and “Order and Progress”

  • Mid- 1870’s New Caudillo, Porfirio Diaz

  • Diaz was also an Indian from Oaxaca

  • 1876: Diaz ousted the President and took control with the support of the military.

  • Elections became meaningless

  • Diaz offered land, power, or political favors to his supporters, terrorized those that did not support him.

  • Remained in power until 1911

Painting porfirio diaz
Painting Porfirio Diaz

Madero begins the revolution
Madero Begins the Revolution

  • Francisco Madero: wealthy background, educated in US and France

  • Announced he was running for President in 1911, was arrested and then exiled to US, where he called for a revolution against Diaz

Francisco pancho villa
Francisco “Pancho” Villa

  • A popular revolutionary leader in Northern Mexico

  • Took money from rich and gave to the poor

Pancho villa
Pancho Villa

Emiliano zapata
Emiliano Zapata

  • Leader of a revolutionary army south of Mexico City.

  • Wanted to redistribute land to the poor.

  • “Land and Liberty!”

Emiliano zapata1
Emiliano Zapata

Mexican leaders struggle for power
Mexican Leaders Struggle for Power

  • Spring of 1911: Diaz agreed to step down.

  • New election: Madero was elected President in Nov. 1911

  • He had a hard time maintaining his power, resigned and was murdered.

  • Military leader, Huerta took over presidency, but his was unpopular and overthrown by Villa, Zapata, and Carranza

Mexican leaders struggle for power1
Mexican Leaders Struggle for Power

  • Carranza took power

  • He then turned his army against Villa and Zapata.

  • 1919: Carranza lured Zapata into a trap and murdered him.

  • Zapata’s death marked the end of the Mexican Revolution: More than 1 million Mexicans had died

New mexican constitution
New Mexican Constitution

  • Carranza’s revised Mexican Constitution

  • Promoted education, land reforms, and worker’s rights.

  • 1920: Carranza was overthrown by his former general Alvaro Obregon

  • Obregon: seized power, but didn’t remain a dictator. Supported constitutional reforms.

  • Obregon was assassinated in 1928

  • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) emerged.