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Introduction to MAXI. Naoki Isobe 1 and MAXI Team 1,2,3,4,5,6 1 RIKEN , 2 JAXA, 3 Osaka Univ., 4 Tokoy Tech. Univ., 5 Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 6 Nihon Uni. MAXI team. Jet. Super massive BH. Black hole. Accretion disk. Companion star. Active galactic nucleus (AGN). Compact objects

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Introduction to maxi

Introduction to MAXI

Naoki Isobe1and MAXI Team1,2,3,4,5,6

1RIKEN, 2JAXA, 3Osaka Univ.,

4Tokoy Tech. Univ., 5Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 6Nihon Uni.

MAXI team

X ray sources


Super massive


Black hole

Accretion disk

Companion star

Active galactic nucleus (AGN)

Compact objects

(Black holes, Neutron stars)

X-ray Sources

  • There are various classes of variable X-ray objects in the universe.

  • Continuous monitor of their X-ray luminosities provides important information on their nature.

MAXI is the ideal instrument !!

Monitor of all sky x ray image maxi






Monitor of All sky X-ray Image; MAXI

  • All-sky X-ray monitor on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the international space station (ISS).

  • Launch : 2008 by Space Shuttle.

  • Mission life : at least 2 years.

  • Scan of all over the sky in every 96 minutes.

  • Two kinds of X-ray instruments; Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC)

A concept of slit camera

Zenith field of view

Celestial sphere



field of view

Narrow rectangular field of view on the sky

A concept of slit camera

X-ray source 1

X-ray source 2




sensitive detector

A combination of position sensitive detector, collimator and slit

MAXI has two identical field of view, toward forward and zenith direction.

Gas slit camera gsc
Gas Slit Camera (GSC)

A unit of GSC

  • 3 units for forward and 3 units for zenith direction

  • Detector : Proportional counter

    Xe gas (1.4 atm)

    Carbon anodes (10 mm)

    Be entrance (100 mm)

  • Large field of view : 1.5 x 160°

  • Large Effective area : 5350 cm2

  • High Sensitivity : 1 mCrab / day





Be window

(A4 paper size)

Proportional counter

Solid state slit camera ssc
Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC)

A unit of SSC

(shown without slit and collimators)

  • One unit for forward and one unit for zenith direction

  • Detector : CCD chip

  • Field of view : 1.5 x 90°

  • Effective area : 200 cm2

  • Good Energy resolution : ~ 150 eV (@ Mn Ka line)

    ⇒ Map of emission lines

CCD chip

(Hamamatsu Photonics)

24 mm

Targets of maxi

Flux [mCab]

1 orbit (96 min)

Previous all sky monitors

1 day

1 week

Distance [ly]

Extragalactic sources

(AGNs, Clusters)

Targets of MAXI

  • Dynamic catalog of more than 1000 X-ray sources

  • Long term monitoring of AGNs

  • Distribution of distant AGNs, by measuring X-ray backgrounds

  • Long term monitoring of flaring stars

  • Alerting X-ray transients

  • Gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows

  • etc …

All sky x ray image with maxi

2 week

1 orbit scan (96 min)

1 day

All sky X-ray Image with MAXI

Data flow of maxi

Quick Follow up !!

Data flow of MAXI

Data relay satellite




50-70% of data is transferred in real time








MAXI is an all sky X-ray monitor on the International Space station.

MAXI will be launched in 2008, with a mission life of 2 years.

MAXI carries two X-ray detectors;

GSC (proportional counters) and SSC (CCDs)

MAXI has very high sensitivity, to detect more than 1000 X-ray sources, especially AGNs.

MAXI alerts X-ray transients almost in real time.

We need tight collaborations for quick follow up observation.

Please contact me, or the mission leader ; Dr. M. Matsuoka (