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Statistical Analysis of EO Data. Pir Ahmad, CRC. Statistical Analysis of EO Data. Aids in monitoring activities Monitor the recipient’s equal opportunity performance Identify instances or areas of potential discrimination Identify individuals or groups who may have been discriminated against.

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Statistical Analysis of EO Data

  • Aids in monitoring activities

    • Monitor the recipient’s equal opportunity performance

    • Identify instances or areas of potential discrimination

    • Identify individuals or groups who may have been discriminated against


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Term to Know - Adverse Impact

  • A substantially different rate of representation, in hiring, promotion, or other employment decision that works to the disadvantage of protected group. (i.e. race, sex, nationality, etc.)

  • If a group’s rate of representation is less than 80% of the most favored group, the group is experiencing adverse impact.(Note: At this point, this does not mean discrimination.)

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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps

  • Calculate the rate of representation for each protected group by dividing the number of persons selected from a group by the number of applicants – or candidates – from that group.


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)

  • Determine which group is experiencing the most advantageous rate:

    • For positive personnel transactions (e.g., hiring), the most favored group has the highest rate.

    • For negative personnel transactions (e.g., termination), the most favored group has the lowest rate.


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)

  • Calculate the impact ratio by comparing the representation rate for each group with that of the most favored group. Multiply this result by 100 to express the result as a percentage.

    • For positive actions, place the most favored group’s rate in the denominator position.

    • For negative actions, place the most favored group’s rate in the numerator position.


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)


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Determining Adverse Impact:Four Steps (cont.)

  • Observe whether the resulting ratio for any group is less than .8 regardless of whether it is a positive or negative transaction – this indicates adverse impact.

    • Using this technique, the ratio will always be 1 or less.


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Term to Know – Standard Deviation

  • Measures dispersion – how spread out the values in a data set are.

  • A measure of the average difference between the values of the data in the set.

  • The standard deviation is always a positive number.

    (Note: At this point, this does not mean discrimination.)

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Statistical Analysis of EO Program Data:

  • Mean (average): Add the value of all the observations; then divide the sum by the number of data observations.

    µ =  (xn)/n


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Statistical Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)

  • Variance: Is the average squared deviation of the data from their mean (average).

    2 = (x i - µ)2/n

  • Standard Deviation: The (positive) square root of the variance. A statistic used as a measure of dispersion in a distribution; a measure of the typical distance between the average (mean) and any given value. It measures the “width” of the distribution of values.

     = √ 2



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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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Example of Data Analysis of EO Program Data: (cont.)


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For further assistance in conducting statistical analysis on EO program data or for questions on this material

Please contact:

Pir Ahmad at (202) 693-6560

or via email at

ahmad.pir@dol.gov