Background: In the past, you may have learned about the Han Dynasty, which ruled China from 206 B.C. to A.D. 220. As you may recall, China often had conflicts with enemy invaders from the northwest. One group of those invaders was the Xiongnu (shyung•noo).
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When the Han Dynasty fell, China broke apart into smaller kingdoms. The lack of a strong central government to organize defenses put China in greater danger from invaders. As you read the following story, imagine you are living during those dangerous times.
Open Books to Page 210
Since the Han Dynasty fell, Luoyang has had many different governments.
Some of your friends wonder who is going to rule your city next, but you’re too busy to worry about it. You tell your friends, “Rulers come and go, but merchants and farmers make sure that life goes on.” Most of the time, you go about your daily work and never think about the government at all.
Today, while you are selling porcelain in the market, you hear pounding
hooves and shrill screams down the street. A man shouts, “Xiongnu!” Your heart leaps in terror. The Xiongnu are fierce nomadic warriors on horseback who have attacked China many times in the past. Now they have broken through the city’s walls!
WHISH! An arrow flies by your head. You duck under the table holding your porcelain. Delicate teapots and bowls crash to the ground and shatter. Quickly, you crawl away and run down an alley until you see an outhouse. You crawl into the sewage pit and hide there all night. The stench is terrible.
The next day, you learn that the Xiongnu have killed thousands of people and destroyed your beautiful city. It looks like a garbage dump. Instead of riding away, the Xiongnu have decided to stay and start a new dynasty.
The Fall of Louyang
Using Pages 210-211
1. Draw and color a picture that represents what you think is
happening in this story.
2. Underneath or on another sheet of paper write a paragraph
describing what is happening to China.
3. Write another paragraph describing what you think will
happen to China under the rule of the Xiongnu.
Define the terms and names. Pgs 213 - 216
For the terms below use Pgs 223 - 229
Define the terms and names. Pgs 223-229
Means anything relating to an empire.
A system of governing that has many
departments responsible for government business.
A person who passed the state
exam for a government position.
A printing system in which
printers carved out wooden
blocks with enough characters to print entire pages.
A small block of metal or wood with
a single letter used for printing books.
Define the terms and names. Pgs 213-216
Person who moves from place to place
Belief system based on the ideas of
Indian religion based on the teaching of
Belief system that seeks harmony with nature
and with inner feelings
To bring a group together after it has been
2. After the Han Dynasty fell, various kingdoms
fought among themselves.
of Han Dynasty.
and conflict after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
6. Chinese Dynasties rose and fell many times.
7. A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same
Question 1. (Read page 213.) What circumstances led people to
conclude that Han dynasty might have lost the Mandate of
Question 2. (Read the Fall of Luoyang on page 211 again.) At
what step of dynastic cycle is the Han Dynasty at the time of the
story? Explain why you think so.
Open Books to Page 218
Question 3. What should the Han Dynasty do to regain the
Mandate of Heaven again?
8. The Sui (sway) Dynasty was
started by Yang Jian when he
killed his grandson and 59 other
Sui Dynasty lasted from
581 AD to 618 AD.
9. Yang Jian brought order to China by establishing
a strong central government which made the
Chinese feel more united.
reminded the Chinese of their great past.
accepted a robe with
As a custom red
doors were given to
11. Wendi allowed people to follow their own beliefs.
emperors, followed Confucius’
belief that a government had
to be built on the skill of its’
A person had to be
pass an exam to work at
a government job.
workers were called
which step? Why?
Question 1. Step 1 or 6 because the emperor is giving
rights to the People and allowing them to practice their own
building the Grand Canal and rebuilding portions
of the Great Wall.
Raising taxes, made
the Chinese people
unhappy and angry.
Question 2. Step 2 because the emperor’s raised taxes making
the Chinese people angry.
Canal and repairing the Great Wall of China.
Question 4. Which step is next? Why?
revolted against the government.
Pages 214 to 216
part of life.
part of life.
The reason people
suffer is that they are
too attached to material
possessions and selfish
By living in a wise,
moral, and thoughtful
way, people can
eventually learn to
Harmony with Inner
Respect family and
correctly to produce
Act in morally
This morality can
Morality is the
highest goal a
person can reach.
occur through books
interaction with other
1st Tang Emperor Gaozu
and his son Taizong
Empress Wu Zhao
Assignment: Give two examples of how each of the above
emperors helped the Tang Dynasty gain the Mandate of Heaven
(Step 1 in the Dynastic Cycle.)
He took land from
the rich and gave
it to the peasants.
She started the
and fine arts.
He did not
peasants with taxes.
She was emperor
until she was 80
Ruled for more
than 40 years.
Q2. How do you think the Tang Dynasty will come to an end?
(Use the Dynastic Cycle on page 218 to help you explain your answer.)
Q3. Which Dynasty came to power after the fall of the Tang
Dynasty? (Use page 224)
a bureaucracy to help run China.
A bureaucracy is a
government that is divided
into departments to make
many roads and waterways
which helped tie China
together by improving
trade and communication.
that ships could travel on the open seas.
printers carved wooden blocks with letters and pictures
large enough to print entire pages.
to the spread of learning.
coins were too heavy and difficult to carry.
used in fireworks.
greatest impact for China and the world? Explain your