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Background: In the past, you may have learned about the Han Dynasty, which ruled China from 206 B.C. to A.D. 220. As you may recall, China often had conflicts with enemy invaders from the northwest. One group of those invaders was the Xiongnu (shyung•noo).

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Background: In the past, you may have learned about the Han Dynasty, which ruled China from 206 B.C. to A.D. 220. As you may recall, China often had conflicts with enemy invaders from the northwest. One group of those invaders was the Xiongnu (shyung•noo).

When the Han Dynasty fell, China broke apart into smaller kingdoms. The lack of a strong central government to organize defenses put China in greater danger from invaders. As you read the following story, imagine you are living during those dangerous times.

Open Books to Page 210

You are a Chinese merchant in A.D. 311. You’re very proud of the city where you live—Luoyang (lwoh•yahng). Your grandfather told you that the city used to be the Han capital. It still has palaces and temples. Students from all over the country flock to the university there. Hundreds of thousands of people live in Luoyang. The walled city has survived tough times, such as peasant revolts, civil wars, and even the fall of a dynasty.

Since the Han Dynasty fell, Luoyang has had many different governments.

Some of your friends wonder who is going to rule your city next, but you’re too busy to worry about it. You tell your friends, “Rulers come and go, but merchants and farmers make sure that life goes on.” Most of the time, you go about your daily work and never think about the government at all.

Today, while you are selling porcelain in the market, you hear pounding

hooves and shrill screams down the street. A man shouts, “Xiongnu!” Your heart leaps in terror. The Xiongnu are fierce nomadic warriors on horseback who have attacked China many times in the past. Now they have broken through the city’s walls!

WHISH! An arrow flies by your head. You duck under the table holding your porcelain. Delicate teapots and bowls crash to the ground and shatter. Quickly, you crawl away and run down an alley until you see an outhouse. You crawl into the sewage pit and hide there all night. The stench is terrible.

The next day, you learn that the Xiongnu have killed thousands of people and destroyed your beautiful city. It looks like a garbage dump. Instead of riding away, the Xiongnu have decided to stay and start a new dynasty.

Homework Assignment

The Fall of Louyang

Using Pages 210-211

1. Draw and color a picture that represents what you think is

happening in this story.

2. Underneath or on another sheet of paper write a paragraph

describing what is happening to China.

3. Write another paragraph describing what you think will

happen to China under the rule of the Xiongnu.

reunifying china terms and names vocabulary
Reunifying China Terms and Names / Vocabulary

Define the terms and names. Pgs 213 - 216

  • 1. nomad
  • 2. Confucianism
  • 3. Buddhism
  • 4. Daoism
  • 5. reunify

For the terms below use Pgs 223 - 229

  • 6. imperial
  • 7. bureaucracy
  • 8. scholar-official
  • 9. wood-block printing
  • 10. movable type
terms and names
Terms and Names

Define the terms and names. Pgs 223-229

  • 1. imperial
  • 2. bureaucracy
  • 3. scholar-official
  • 4. wood-block printing
  • 5. movable type

Means anything relating to an empire.

A system of governing that has many

departments responsible for government business.

A person who passed the state

exam for a government position.

A printing system in which

printers carved out wooden

blocks with enough characters to print entire pages.

A small block of metal or wood with

a single letter used for printing books.

terms and names1
Terms and Names

Define the terms and names. Pgs 213-216

  • 3. nomad
  • 4. Confucianism
  • 5. Buddhism
  • 6. Daoism
  • 7. reunify

Person who moves from place to place

Belief system based on the ideas of


Indian religion based on the teaching of

Siddhartha Gautama

Belief system that seeks harmony with nature

and with inner feelings

To bring a group together after it has been


The Han Dynasty
  • China enjoyed progress and prosperity during
  • the Han Dynasty.
Fall of the Han Dynasty

2. After the Han Dynasty fell, various kingdoms

fought among themselves.

5. China endured more than 350 years of chaos

and conflict after the fall of the Han Dynasty.

the breakup of china


The Breakup of China

Political Problems

  • Fighting among the
  • people of China


2. Invasions by

nomads like the


Fall of Han


Social Struggles

3. Starving (famine),

floods, droughts

Widening Gap

Between Rich and


No government

cycle of chinese dynasties
Cycle of Chinese Dynasties

6. Chinese Dynasties rose and fell many times.

7. A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same


Don’t copy the

questions, just


Question 1. (Read page 213.) What circumstances led people to

conclude that Han dynasty might have lost the Mandate of


Question 2. (Read the Fall of Luoyang on page 211 again.) At

what step of dynastic cycle is the Han Dynasty at the time of the

story? Explain why you think so.

Open Books to Page 218

Question 3. What should the Han Dynasty do to regain the

Mandate of Heaven again?

The Sui Dynasty

8. The Sui (sway) Dynasty was

started by Yang Jian when he

killed his grandson and 59 other

royal princes.

Yang Jian was later

called Wendi

Sui Dynasty lasted from

581 AD to 618 AD.

9. Yang Jian brought order to China by establishing

a strong central government which made the

Chinese feel more united.

10. Wendi brought back old political traditions that

reminded the Chinese of their great past.

Wendi also

accepted a robe with

red sash.

As a custom red

doors were given to

Chinese emperors.




11. Wendi allowed people to follow their own beliefs.

12. Wendi, and all later

emperors, followed Confucius’

belief that a government had

to be built on the skill of its’


A person had to be

pass an exam to work at

a government job.



workers were called

scholar officials.

Question 1. At this point, (Notes 8 -12) the Sui Dynasty is at

which step? Why?

Question 1. Step 1 or 6 because the emperor is giving

rights to the People and allowing them to practice their own


13. Wendi began public works projects such as

building the Grand Canal and rebuilding portions

of the Great Wall.

14. To pay for the building projects, the emperor

raised taxes.

Raising taxes, made

the Chinese people

unhappy and angry.

Question 2. At this point (Notes 13-14), the Sui Dynasty is at which

step? Why?

Question 2. Step 2 because the emperor’s raised taxes making

the Chinese people angry.

15. Thousands of peasants died building the Grand

Canal and repairing the Great Wall of China.

3. At this point (Note 15), the Sui Dynasty is in which step?


Question 4. Which step is next? Why?

Philosophies and Religions of China

Pages 214 to 216





Suffering is

part of life.

Suffering is

part of life.

The reason people

suffer is that they are

too attached to material

possessions and selfish


By living in a wise,

moral, and thoughtful

way, people can

eventually learn to

lessen suffering.


Harmony with Inner


Harmony with


Tang Confucianism

Respect family and

older generations.

Use relations

correctly to produce

social order.

Respect family

and older


Educate Individuals

and society.

Act in morally

correct ways.

Song Confucianism

This morality can

be achieved

through education.

Morality is the

highest goal a

person can reach.

Education can

occur through books

observation, or

interaction with other

wise people.

Greatly influenced

by Buddhism.

Open Books to Pgs 218-219

Tang Dynasty

1st Tang Emperor Gaozu

and his son Taizong

Empress Wu Zhao

Emperor Xuanzong

(shwahn zung)

Assignment: Give two examples of how each of the above

emperors helped the Tang Dynasty gain the Mandate of Heaven

(Step 1 in the Dynastic Cycle.)

Open Books to Pgs 218-219

He took land from

the rich and gave

it to the peasants.

She started the

reconquest of


Encouraged poetry

and fine arts.

He did not


peasants with taxes.

She was emperor

until she was 80

years old.

Ruled for more

than 40 years.

Q2. How do you think the Tang Dynasty will come to an end?

(Use the Dynastic Cycle on page 218 to help you explain your answer.)

Q3. Which Dynasty came to power after the fall of the Tang

Dynasty? (Use page 224)

Advances During the Tang and Song Dynasty
  • Tang rulers created a legal
  • code so that the same laws
  • would be used everywhere
  • in China.

Law Code

2. The Tang dynasty used a

a bureaucracy to help run China.

A bureaucracy is a

government that is divided

into departments to make

governing easier.

3. The government built

many roads and waterways

which helped tie China

together by improving

trade and communication.

4. The Chinese developed the magnetic compass so

that ships could travel on the open seas.

5. The Chinese invented wood-block printing in which

printers carved wooden blocks with letters and pictures

large enough to print entire pages.

Printing contributed

to the spread of learning.

6. The Chinese invented paper money because metal

coins were too heavy and difficult to carry.

Question 1. Which achievement do you think had the

greatest impact for China and the world? Explain your