MCA Namibia Integration of Gender into MCA-N Compact MCA-N ESA Team 17 May 2011
Gender! • What is it? • Refers to social roles, responsibilities & relations between men & women • The gender roles of women & men are socially constructed • Gender vs. affirmative action
Definition The term gender refers to culturally based expectations of the roles and behaviours of males and females. The term distinguishes the socially constructed from the biologically determined aspects of being male and female. Unlike the biology of sex, gender roles and behaviours can change historically, sometimes relatively quickly, even if aspects of these roles originated in the biological differences between the sexes. Because the religious or cultural traditions that define and justify the distinct roles and expected behaviours of males and females are strongly cherished and socially enforced, change in gender systems often is contested. In some countries, there are groups which seek to impose more stringent divisions between males and females than currently exist, while feminist movements seek to reduce or eradicate these divisions.
Lessons learnt • males and females have unequal rights, resources, and voice in decision making in almost all countries, including the developed countries • the average extent of the gender gap varies from region to region and from country to country • gender disparities tend to be greater in low-income than in higher-income countries • within countries, disparities are greater among the poor than in the well strata of society. • the nature of gender inequalities varies from region to region and country to country, and from community to community within a country.
Gender inequalities • roles and responsibilities or gender based division of labour • Gender based disparities in access and control of resources • Gender biases in rights and entitlements • expectations and identities have an impact on development, economic growth and poverty reduction ……..
Gender inequalities …. Acts to undermine economic growth Reduces the well being of men, women & children Contributes to poverty Take a note of examples around you or in your community…
GRN and Gender • GRN – very committed to ensure: gender issues integration into all laws, policies & Programmes • MGECW • National Gender Policy – NGP • National Gender plan of Action – NGPA
NGP • Prioritise gender balance in power and decision making • Aims at improving women participation in politics and decision making • For achieving transparency & accountability in GRN • For new perspective and experiences to political agenda • For social & economical development • Awareness and attitude change
NGPA • Promote & facilitate equal representation of women & men at all levels of the decision making structures at national, regional and community levels • Build capacity of women in management & leadership positions • Change negative attitudes towards gender equality • Increase awareness of negative practices that inhibit women's participation on power sharing at all levels of society
NGPA – some results • Namibian Women Parliamentary Causus – 1996 • Promote gender sensitive legislations • Greater role for women in the Namibia Parliament • 50/50 Campaign • Gender equality in political representation (Sister Namibia) • Awareness campaign
MCC and Gender “ MCC’s Environmental Guidelines are inclusive of assessing social and gender impacts and risks of negative impacts. Since Oct. 2006, MCC has a policy on how gender analysis will be integrated into the Compact development process.
MCC and Gender • MCC’s Gender Policy based on growing evidence that gender inequality is a constraint to growth and poverty reduction. • Incorporating gender = economic and project effectiveness argument. • Lack of understanding of gender differences can lead to ineffective or biased project design • roles and responsibilities • access and control of resources
MCC and Gender Gender Policy: Integration of gender into all stages of development and implementation of Compact. Requires eligible countries to utilize an analysis of gender differences and inequalities to inform the development, design, implementation, and monitoring of MCC-funded programs.
MCC and Gender • Compact Implementation MCA-N Responsibilities in Compact Implementation Ensure that sex-disaggregated data will be analyzed in monitoring performance and results and evaluating impacts. Where projects have specifically addressed gender differences and inequalities in design, countries will monitor gender indicators
MCC and Gender MCC Responsibilities in Compact Implementation MCC will integrate gender into its oversight and assessment of a country’s performance during implementation MCC will assess the extent to which Compact programs reflect findings on gender differences and inequalities and meet intended gender outcomes Some disbursements of MCA funds may be conditioned upon the satisfaction of targets and progress on indicators measuring project performance
MCC and Gender • MCC 2009 Gender Review • When MCC/A social and gender staff engage early, there is improved quality of gender integration in contractor deliverables • Provide regular training for MCC and MCA staff on the gender policy implementation • Increase female participation in MCC-funded projects, by focusing at an early stage on project design, outreach, or execution of plans with the appropriate capacity and staff
MCC and Gender • MCC Gender Review: Public Commitments • Ensure that the MCAs have social assessment and gender competency on their staff during compact development and implementation. • Annual social and gender assessment training will be offered for all MCC staff and will be mandatory for all new MCC employees. • MCAs in new compact countries will be expected to engage social assessment specialists with gender expertise at an early stage • Provide training for all MCA staff on gender and other social issues. • Gender integration will become part of all implementation workshops in compact countries. • Gender integration will be a recurring topic at MCC University, • Updates on gender integration will formally be included in every internal MCC quarterly country portfolio review.
MCA-N Gender sensitive activities • INP • CBRLM • Communal land support • Conservancy support • Gender issues at MCA-N Office?
What has been and can be done at activity level? What has been done? • Gender training for decision makers – Traditional Authorities; Communal Land Boards; Senior Headmen and a training module / manual was developed and translated in local languages. • INP PPO also planned / done three (3) modules focusing on gender namely gender action learning system, gender for management committees public speaking / communication skills. • Encourage inclusion and participation of women and vulnerable groups in all MCA-N activities.
What has been and can be done Cont’d • Reviewed project proposals, inception report and advised Contractors / Grantees to ensure women and vulnerable people are participating / benefiting in their various activities. • Our Community Land Support has started with the process of amending the application process for applying for land to enable women and vulnerable groups to acquire land. • Gender Integration Plans developed by various contractors and currently being implemented.
What has been and can be done Cont’d • Production of materials such as comic and photo banks which could be used for a reporting as well as publication; • INP PPO have / will also be conducting a training for PPOs, training of community consultations as well as monitoring of field support.
What has been and can be done Cont’d What can be done? • Each project / sub activities / contactors / grantees put more emphasis on implementing gender strategy as per their gender plan or MCA-N GSIS; • Making training times and venues more accessible to women; • Capacity development for women to fully participate; • Using female trainers/field workers; • Including areas traditionally of • concern to women;
What has been and can be done Cont’d What can be done Cont’d: • Considering safety issues; • Contribute to the MCA-N storyline on gender at activity level; • Report on gender disaggregation (number of women vs. men) participating on training / meeting (M&E); • Participate and present at the gender workshop with all MCA-N contractors / grantees in September / October 2011; • Share materials / modules / ideas especially for contractors working with the same target groups
MCA-N Gender Approach: Gender integration • Gender Analysis • Gender Mainstreaming • Attention to gender equality to become the centre of all interventions • Gender sensitive indicators • Demonstrates changes in roles and relations • Assesses the progress towards gender equality considerations
Gender Analysis • Understanding of women and men’s roles and relations • Base for developing better targeted development interventions for both women & man needs and constraints • Main requirement
Examples • Determine if the project benefits are structured to be accessible by women and vulnerable groups • Study the degree to which activities may inadvertently lead to additional inequitable or “elite capture” of benefits • Assessment of who contributes and who benefits, using appropriate tools. Consider divergent interests between men and women; young and old; more and less powerful • Construction teams and local communities participate in HIV and AIDS prevention, care and treatment programs with attention to drivers of the epidemic. • Identify any specific gender inequality (e.g. property rights, access rights, inheritance rights, etc.) and plan accordingly
Gender Mainstreaming Safeguards are needed to ensure that MCA-N investment • Does not adversely affect vulnerable groups, • Provides access to training, grants and other benefits that is equitable
What hinders equal participation and gender equality in Namibia? • Equality under the law • Addressing norms and behaviors and culture • Equal access to and control over income and productive resources, • Equal access to education • Autonomy to make life choices, free from fear of violence, • Equal powers of participation and decision-making.
Examples of gender-sensitive indicators are: Quantitative: • Participation of all stakeholders in project identification, design and implementation meetings (attendance and level of participation/contribution by sex, age, and socio-economic background). • Degree of rural women and men's inputs into project activities, in terms of labor, tools, money, etc. • Benefits (e.g. increased employment, land registration etc.) are going to women and men, by socio-economic background and age. Qualitative: • Degree of participation of women in important decision making