Tailwinds Flying Partnership2012 Winter Safety Session Winter Flying: Dealing with Winter Conditions
2012 Winter Safety Session AOPA Safety Institute – Accident Case Studies
2012 Winter Safety Session AOPA Interactive Weather Courses
2012 Winter Safety Session AOPA Air Safety Institute • AOPA Air Safety Institute Cold Weather Resources • http://www.aopa.org/asf/hotspot/winterwx.html • AOPA Air Safety Institute Weather Wise Precipitation and Icing • http://flash.aopa.org/asf/wxwise_precip/
2012 Winter Safety Session COPA – Cirrus Owners & Pilots Association COPA Safety Forum M9 Presentation http://www.cirruspilots.org Sign in using Tailwinds username and password
2012 Winter Safety Session Member Presentations • Eric Broderson – ATP • Received Private Pilot certificate – 1967 • CFII – 1978 (time out to finish college) • ATP while flying freight for Combs Freightair – 1980 • Trained as captain on the Convair 580 turboprop – 1984 • Eastern Airlines – 1985 to 1989 – B727 • Northwest Airlines until 2010 – DC9 & A320 • Fly's his ‘Floatfox’ off Big Carnelian Lake
2012 Winter Safety Session Member Presentations • Mark Shanahan – ATP • Logged fist hour in 1971 • Earned commercial, multi, instrument and CFI – 1976 • After college landed job flying freight in DC-3s • Took a pay cut and joined Atlantic Southeast Airlines flying DeHavilland Twin Otter • Joined Republic Airlines – 7 years in CV-580 • From Republic to Northwest and now Delta • Enjoys all type of flying including; ultra-lights, seaplanes, and other various general aviation airplanes
Winter In the Airline Business What can us ‘little guys’ learn from large aircraft operations?
Have a Plan • De-icing, snow removal, aircraft preflight are all specified in an operations manual. • Flight operations have published limitations and procedures. • The rules are set and then FOLLOWED!
Operate Within the Limits of Our Equipment • A jet may have a ‘hot’ wing and lots of other de-icing gear, but that doesn’t allow it operate continuously in icing conditions. The rule is ‘get out when icing starts.’ (Think American Eagle ATR in Indiana)
Runway and Taxiway Conditions • Plowing is critical! • Are snow banks inside or outside of runway lights? Are there drifts across the runway? • Air carrier airports require reports and inspections. What about your airport? • Will light conditions affect what you see? • Can you get to/from the runway?
Heat is Nice • De-icing is one thing, pre-heating is another. • We pre-heat our engines, but what about the rest of the airplane? Gyro instruments in particular need to warm up.
PIREPs • Make them! Listen for them! But… • Consider the source! What is light icing to an A320 could be fatal to a Cherokee Six. • Aircraft capability makes it hard to tell real extent of icing (At 2-3,000 fpm climb, they aren’t in the weather long). • The regional fleet has changed radically in 10 years. Very few turboprops operating to smaller cities. This limits useful PIREPs.
Most Important – The Right Mindset! • For large airplane pilots, it’s a job. • It’s got to be done right. • If we don’t get home, so what. Wife may be upset, but boss won’t mind. • First responsibility is to make sure passengers are safe.
This presentation is designed to stimulate a discussion for Tailwinds Flying Club members about avoiding icing conditions in our airplanes. The author isn’t currently a CFI or claims to be an authority on icing… But I’ve got some experience in the subject and would like to share some of that, and the weather information here is typically what I look at when considering flying a trip that risks an encounter with icing. There are many ways to look at this subject and sources of information, please share your technique with us. If you have some ideas, experiences, or questions: Please participate!
Can’t start without a…. Disclaimer This presentation is for discussion only and does not claim to show how to do a legal or complete briefing prior to a flight!! Please consult your FARs and the AIM for that information!!
And: Don’t fly our airplanes in Icing Conditions!!
I first learned about icing in the Aero Commander, a very capable freighter. Not certified for ‘known ice’ but it will fly night after night all winter!
But we’ll take the Cirrus this time. I sure like the avionics better! Flight Plan N132CP Cirrus SR20/G 140kt 21D PRESS V2 ODI V82 DLL KMSN ETE 1:20 FOB 3:20 Alternate KDLL (GPS 01/19, LOC/DME 01) Plan on leaving mid afternoon
General Info!! Yep, some IFR around, but a good trend
Metars and FA’s. GOT TO HAVE ‘EM! Let’s leave after 3pm
Hard IFR down there… But looks like 23z (6pm) should be good for weather and wind at MSN.. So if we arrive then…
12pm at 9000 Is that lake effect ice over Michigan?
All icing Pireps are east of our route, and the weather is moving east. GOOD!
I’m over LaCrosse. About half way. I’m in the clear. I call flight watch and ask for icing pilot reports. A Twin Comanche gave a PIREP over DLL at 7000 reporting light rime ice and a temp of -8. Another PIREP was a DC9 climbing out of Madison reporting bases at 2500 and tops at 5500, and another layer above, with a trace of ice in cloud.
PIREPS and PROS Forecasts are important, but PIREPS are the REAL DEAL! It’s what’s happening in real time. Pros get recent Pireps any time they are concerned about icing. When you’re in good weather, get the PIREPS from Flight Service (or on a device) But when you think icing is in your area ask ‘CENTER’. If ‘CENTER’ (enroute ATC) isn’t real busy, you can ask them directly for pilot reports on icing. They are the best source! They’re handling aircraft in your area and at your altitude. That means they know your conditions and are talking to aircraft like yours. And they are there to help you!
Other Notes on PIREPS Towers will often ask departing airliners to make a PIREP back to them on altitudes of the bases and tops of the cloud layers and and icing while they climb out of the area. Among other things, this makes that information available for small aircraft to help them stay VFR and/or out of icing. The report made by the DC9 is pretty common at smaller ‘Tower’ airports and pretty reliable. Remember airliners just turn on their anti-ice systems and often plow through ice without even thinking about it. So if an airliner makes a report that is unsolicited, that ice is probably deadly for our little Cirrus.
Pay attention to other airplanes on Center’s frequency. Especially if they’re in front of you! Reports from piston aircraft with icing equipment (usually twins with boots and heated props) are excellent. They spend time in the ice and know the conditions behind them, and often know about cloud layers, etc. You should know aircraft types so you know who’s talking. One note of caution – We can’t always determine the other airplanes capability by its call sign. That Cirrus could be like 132CP (not approved for flight into know icing) or it could be an SR22 with a wet wing system. Just because they can fly through the area, it doesn’t mean we can.
What we don’t have on our planes: Wing and tail boots, wet wings, prop heat, windshield heat, and retracted gear that’s not collecting ice. But we DO have….
Pitot Heat and a window defroster. Make sure they’re on!! • Alternate Eng Intake Air and Alternate Pitot Source. Know how to use them!!
More Effects: • Iced up windshield (or fogged up on the inside). How do you handle that? • Radio reception degraded. • Airspeed indication drops to ‘zero’, what now?
Tail Ice Can Cause a Tail Stall Flap extension in combination with horizontal stab ice… result is a rapid pitch down! Recovery? Raise flaps!
Props The importance of preserving thrust in ice is often forgotten.
The heaviest ice is often near the top of a cloud layer • The heaviest ice is often in air closest to 0 deg C • Away from fronts or mountains, ice will usually be in layers, is pretty predictable, and lighter • But if ice is in uplifted air such as ahead of a cold front, in a large cumulous cloud, or when it rises over a mountain range, and can be devastating even to an airliner. • Icing can be very localized. Not easy to spot like a thunderstorm or low visibility. Move 20 miles and its gone • You don’t have to be in the clouds to get airframe icing. Precip may be cold enough to freeze on your airframe.
I’m over the DLL VOR at 5000 in clouds It’s about 5pm, dark, about 20 minutes from Madison and have 2:00 of fuel. Using my flashlight I notice an opaque film on the wing leading edges, and IAS is reducing a few knots What now?
FLY THE AIRCRAFT IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM UNDERSTAND THE OPTIONS EXECUTE A PLAN
FLY THE AIRCRAFT • Instrumentation: PITOT HEAT ON • AND Locate the Alternate Static Source knob in case I need to use it • Engine: Locate the Alternate Air Intake knob in case I need that • Windshield: Turn up the defroster.