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Inclinometers in Structural Monitoring . CEE 398 KUC. Introduction. Monitoring Inclino/ Clino/ Tilt meters. Inclinometers / Tiltmeters. Where are they used Types Reference System used Gravity - referenced w.r.t gravity Locally - referenced w.r.t fibers Principle used Optical

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  • Monitoring
  • Inclino/ Clino/ Tilt meters


inclinometers tiltmeters
Inclinometers / Tiltmeters
  • Where are they used
  • Types
      • Reference System used
        • Gravity - referenced w.r.t gravity
        • Locally - referenced w.r.t fibers
      • Principle used
        • Optical
        • Mechanical
        • Electrical
          • Resistive, Inductive, Capacitive


simple hydraulic tiltmeter
Simple Hydraulic Tiltmeter

2 cylinders – same height – connected by a tube – filled with water – difference in water levels indicates the amount of tilt present

Separation of the tanks determines the Sensitivity

Central connecting tube having the piston is used to change the water level and Calibrate


today s market
Today’s Market …

Portable Tiltmeter

Tuff Tilt – Uniaxial Tiltmeter

Surface Mount Tiltmeter

EL Beam Sensor

Biaxial Tiltmeter

EL Tiltmeter

Portable Tiltmeter


the process
The Process

Monitoring using Tiltmeters

Data Analysis Software

A data Acquisition System e.g. Model 796 Recording Station


real life example long term monitoring of lutrive bridge
Real Life ExampleLong Term Monitoring of Lutrive Bridge
  • Twin bridges – Lausanne to Vevey
  • Bridge Monitoring, 1973 – 1987
  • Bridge Retrofit 1998, additional Post tensioning, 13000 kN  30mm uplift.
  • IBAP of EPFL is involved in Long term monitoring of the bridge.
    • Hydrostatic system
    • Inclinometers


things to look for in a new inclinometer
Things to look for in a new Inclinometer …..
  • Angular Range (degrees/ radian/ arc seconds)
  • Scale Factors (degree/volt)
  • Resolution (degrees)
  • Repeatability (degrees)
  • Hysteresis (degrees)
  • Linearity (% of full span)
  • Time Constants (sec)
  • Tilt Output (No. of angles; Voltage range)
  • Temperature Output (oC / mV)




Stabilization measures, such as grouting.

Structures for the effects of tunneling and excavating.

Stability of structures in landslide areas.

Deflection and deformation of retaining walls.

Convergence and other movements in tunnels.

Evaluating performance of bridge, beams and dams under loads.

Providing early warning of threatening deformations.






  • slopes and landslides to detect zones of movement to establish whether movement is constant, accelerating.
  • diaphragm walls and sheet piles to check that deflections are within design limits, performance is as expected, and that adjacent buildings are not affected by ground movements
  • the effects of tunneling operations to ensure that adjacent structures are not damaged by ground movements

Providing settlement profiles of embankments, foundations and other structures


surface mount tiltmeter model 711 2 716 2 of applied geomechanics
Surface Mount TiltmeterModel 711 – 2/ 716 - 2 of Applied Geomechanics
  • A precision Biaxial Tiltmeter – Can bolt or clamp to any surface
  • Well suited for areas of heavy traffic or vibration
  • Internal Electronics of the models drive cable lengths of 1000m
  • Widely used for structural monitoring, load testing and precision alignment of machinery and antennae


tuff tilt uniaxial tiltmeter model 801 applied geomechanics
Tuff Tilt – Uniaxial TiltmeterModel 801 Applied Geomechanics
  • Gravity referenced - Electrolytic tilt transducer
  • A economical precision instrument with high dynamic range and long term stability
  • Applications
    • Monitoring of Bridges and Structures
    • Rotary Position of dam gates and other machinery
    • Antenna Leveling and tracking


portable clinometers model 800p portable tiltmeter of applied geomechanics
Portable ClinometersModel 800P Portable Tiltmeter of Applied Geomechanics
  • A economical hand held instrument suited best for measurements at a number of points when continuous monitoring is not required
  • Comparatively cheaper than other contemporary Inclinometers in the category due to the use of a precision electrolytic transducer as sensing element which converts changes in angular positions to resistance changes
  • Operation
    • Tilt plate option
    • Metrology Option


portable clinometers portable tiltmeter of slope indicator
Portable ClinometersPortable Tiltmeter of Slope indicator
  • The system uses a number of tilt plates, a portable Tiltmeter and a readout unit
  • The portable Tiltmeter uses a force balanced servo – accelerometer to measure inclination.
  • Operation …
  • Advantages:
    • Economical and east to use and install
    • Accurate - portable Tiltmeter uses the same technology as a digital inclinometer probe


el tiltmeter
El Tiltmeter
  • Ideal for long term monitoring of deflection of structures and performance evaluation under loads
  • Consists of an electrolytic tilt sensor – a precision bubble level that is sensed electrically as a resistance bridge ; output voltage  tilt of the sensor
  • Operation …


el beam sensors
EL Beam Sensors
  • Consists of an electrolytic sensor attached to a rigid metal beam – the sensor is a precision bubble level that is sensed electrically
  • Operation ..
  • High Resolution, Installing ease while being robust and cost effective are its advantages


little dipper model 904 t of applied geomechanics
Little Dipper Model 904 – T of Applied Geomechanics
  • Low Cost – Analog Output – Biaxial Inclinometers – small scale testing and measurement applications, most of them being in Geotechnical fields.
  • Liquid filled electrolytic transducer - sensing element
  • Analog Voltage signal - X tilt, Y tilt and temperature
  • Cable length varies - 3m to 500m.
  • High gain version of the instrument - capture an angle range of 10 degrees with an accuracy of 0.005 degrees