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ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS(EKT313). Lecturers : 1.Pn Sahadah binti Ahmad 2.Dr.Mohd Fareq bin Malek 3. Pn Sharifah Zarihan (PLV) Contact #: 1. 017 5722339/04 9852605 2. 016 5219769/04 985 3. 012 4539120/04 9852721

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electronics communications ekt313
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS(EKT313)
  • Lecturers : 1.Pn Sahadahbinti Ahmad
  • 2.Dr.Mohd Fareq bin Malek
  • 3. PnSharifahZarihan (PLV)
  • Contact #: 1. 017 5722339/04 9852605
  • 2. 016 5219769/04 985
  • 3. 012 4539120/04 9852721
  • Email : shahadah@unimap.edu.my
  • mfareq@unimap.edu.my
  • zarihan@unimap.edu.my
ekt313
EKT313

Sem: 1 2011/2012

  • Meeting: Lecture 3 Hours @ DK

Lab 2 Hours / 2 sessions @

MKR 3 & MKY 7

  • Attendance are compulsory!!
course outcomes co
Course Outcomes (CO)
  • CO1: Ability to utilize software and simulation tools in designing

systems in communications . 

  • CO2: Ability to analyze transmission of the signal through

channels, noise and modulation. 

  • CO3: Ability to identify, analyze and design the architecture of

radio frequency , amplifiers, mixers, AM and FM

modulators and demodulators, transmitter circuits and

receiver circuits.

  •  CO4: Ability to perform measurement, analyze output signal

and trouble shoot using laboratory equipments /

instruments.

synopsis
SYNOPSIS
  • OBJECTIVES:
  • This subject introduces the students about the design and electronics used in communication system. This includes the design and architecture of radio frequency amplifiers, mixers, AM and FM modulators and demodulators, transmitter circuits and receiver’s circuits. It is also to give introduction to students about how to analyze circuit and its importance in communication electronic field.
synopsis1
SYNOPSIS
  • TOPICS COVERED ARE:
  • Introductions to Electronics Communications,
  • AM& SSB Modulations & AM Circuits,
  • FM and FM Circuits,
  • Radio Transmitter and
  • Communications Receivers
  • Transmission Lines
synopsis2
SYNOPSIS
  • Practical:
  • Designing and constructing of Radio Frequency (RF) Receiver architecture, i.e. modulator, demodulator, oscillator, filters, down converters, etc using software and hardwares.
  • Software : ADS 2009
assessments
ASSESSMENTS
  • Final exam = 50%
  • Test 1 & 2 = 20%
  • Lab = 30%

5% presentation

5% Report

20% Project

list of text books and references
List of text books and references
  • [1] Louis E. Frenzel Jr, Principles of Electronic Communication Systems , 3rd Ed., McGrawHill 2008. (text)
  • [2] Wayne Tomasi, Electronics Communication Systems, Prentice Hall
  • [3] Paul Young, Electronics Communications Techniques,
lecture 1

LECTURE 1

REVIEW TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

PART 1

what do you understand

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND

of

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM?

definitions of communications
DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATIONS
  • Humans exchanging information
  • Machines exchanging information
  • Conveying thoughts, feelings, ideas, and facts
  • Sending and receiving information by electronic means
barriers to communications
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONS
  • Language: human, computer, or electronic
  • Distance: space between sending and receiving parties
common forms of communications
COMMON FORMS OF COMMUNICATIONS
  • Human voice: face-to-face conversations, public speakers, actors in plays, etc.
  • Audio: CDs, tape, records, radio
  • Body language: non-verbal
  • Print: newspapers, magazines, books, etc.
  • Film: still and movie
  • Video: movies, graphics and animation
  • Music: personal, concerts
forms of electronic communications
FORMS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS
  • Radio and TV broadcasting
  • Telephone, wired and wireless
  • Fax
  • Pagers
  • Computer networks: modem, e-mail, Internet and World Wide Web, wireless
  • Satellites, radar, radio telescopes
model of all communications systems
MODEL OF ALL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

Transmitter

Receiver

Channel

TX

RX

Communications

medium

Noise

Received

information

Information to be

transmitted

basic components
Basic components:

 Transmitter

 Channel or medium

 Receiver

 Noisedegrades or interferes with transmitted information.

communication systems
Communication Systems

Transmitter

  • The transmitter is a collection of electronic components and circuits that converts the electrical signal into a signal suitable for transmission over a given medium.
  • Transmitters are made up of oscillators, amplifiers, tuned circuits and filters, modulators, frequency mixers, frequency synthesizers, and other circuits.
communication systems1
Communication Systems

Communication Channel

  • The communication channel is the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one place to another.
  • Types of media include
    • Electrical conductors
    • Optical media
    • Free space
    • System-specific media (e.g., water is the medium for sonar).
communication systems2
Communication Systems

Receivers

  • A receiveris a collection of electronic components and circuits that accepts the transmitted message from the channel and converts it back into a form understandable by humans.
  • Receivers contain amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, tuned circuits and filters, and a demodulator or detector that recovers the original intelligence signal from the modulated carrier
communication systems3
Communication Systems

Transceivers

  • A transceiveris an electronic unit that incorporates circuits that both send and receive signals.
  • Examples are:
    • Telephones
    • Fax machines
    • Handheld CB radios
    • Cell phones
    • Computer modems
communication systems4
Communication Systems

Noise

  • Noise is random, undesirable electronic energy that enters the communication system via the communicating medium and interferes with the transmitted message.
types of communications
TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS

Simplex:

One-way

TX

RX

Channel

Duplex:

Two-way

Half duplex:

Alternate TX/RX

Full duplex:

Simultaneous

TX/RX

TX

RX

Channel(s)

TX

RX

types of communications signals
TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS SIGNALS

Analog - smooth and continuous voltage variation.

Digital - binary or two voltage levels.

Time

communications signal variations
COMMUNICATIONS SIGNAL VARIATIONS
  • Baseband - The original information signal such as audio, video, or computer data. Can be analog or digital.
  • Broadband - The baseband signal modulates or modifies a carrier signal, which is usually a sine wave at a frequency much higher than the baseband signal.
modulation
MODULATION
  • An electronic technique in which a baseband information signal modifies a carrier signal (usually a sine wave) for the purpose of frequency translation and carrying the information signal via radio.
  • The common types of modulation are amplitude, frequency and phase.
amplitude modulation

High-frequency carrier

AMPLITUDE MODULATION

The modulating (baseband) signal is a sinusoid in this example.

slide30

An AM signal as it usually

appears on an oscilloscope

The carrier frequency is normally much

higher than the baseband frequency.

slide31

FREQUENCY MODULATION

The baseband signal controls the carrier’s frequency and the carrier’s amplitude remains constant.

slide32

Increasing fc

Decreasing fc

Increasing fc

Resting fc

Resting fc

FM

Modulating signal

Carrier

multiplexing
MULTIPLEXING
  • Multiplexing (MUX or MPX) - the process of simultaneously transmitting two or more baseband information signals over a single communications channel.
  • Demultiplexing (DEMUX or DMPX) - the process of recovering the individual baseband signals from the multiplexed signal.
multiplexing and demultiplexing

Single communications channel (radio or cable)

Recovered baseband

information signals

Original baseband

information signals

MULTIPLEXING AND DEMULTIPLEXING

MUX

DEMUX

electronic communications applications
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS
  • Radio broadcasting (AM & FM)
  • Television broadcasting (analog & DTV)
  • Cable TV
  • Wireless remote control
  • Paging
  • Navigation and direction finding
  • Telemetry
electronic communications applications continued
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (Continued)
  • Radio astronomy
  • Surveillance
  • RF identification (ID)
  • Music services
  • Telephones (wired, cordless, cellular)
  • Facsimile
  • Two-way radio
electronic communications applications continued1
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (Continued)
  • Radar
  • Sonar
  • Amateur radio
  • Citizens and family radio
  • Data communications
  • Networks
  • Internet and World Wide Web
frequency and wavelength
FREQUENCYANDWAVELENGTH
  • Cycle - One complete occurrence of a repeating wave (periodic signal) such as one positive and one negative alternation of a sine wave.
  • Frequency - the number of cycles of a signal that occur in one second.
  • Period- the time distance between two similar points on a periodic wave.
  • Wavelength - the distance traveled by an electromagnetic (radio) wave during one period.
slide41

T = One period

One cycle

PERIOD AND FREQUENCY COMPARED

time

Frequency = f = 1/T

slide42

Frequency and wavelength compared

T

+

0

time

f = 1/T

distance

calculating wavelength and frequency
CALCULATING WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY

 = 300/f

f = 300/

 = wavelength in meters

f = frequency in MHz

slide44

Wavelength

Frequency

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM FROM 30 HZ TO 300 GHZ

( = 300/f)

10-1 m

10-2 m

10-3 m

10-4 m

106 m

105 m

104 m

103 m

102 m

107 m

10 m

1 m

Millimeter

waves

ELF

VLF

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

VF

3 kHz

30 Hz

3 GHz

3 MHz

30 kHz

300 Hz

30 GHz

300 kHz

30 MHz

300 GHz

300 MHz

(f = 300/)

low and medium frequencies
LOW AND MEDIUM FREQUENCIES
  • Extremely Low Frequencies - 30 to 300 Hz
  • Voice Frequencies - 300 to 3000 Hz
  • Very Low Frequencies - 3 kHz to 30 kHz
  • Low Frequencies - 30 kHz to 300 kHz
  • Medium Frequencies - 300 kHz to 3 MHz
high frequencies
HIGH FREQUENCIES
  • High Frequencies

- 3 MHz to 30 MHz

  • Very High Frequencies

- 30 MHz to 300 MHz

  • Ultra High Frequencies

- 300 MHz to 3 GHz

(1 GHz and above = microwaves)

  • Super High Frequencies

- 3 GHz to 30 GHz

  • Extremely High Frequencies

- 30 GHz to 300 GHz

slide47

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM ABOVE 300 GHZ

Wavelength

0.8 x 10-6 m

0.4 x 10-6 m

10-5 m

10-3 m

10-4 m

Millimeter

waves

Ultraviolet

X-rays

Infrared

Gamma rays

Visible

Cosmic rays

300 GHz

optical frequencies
OPTICAL FREQUENCIES
  • Infrared - 0.7 to 10 micron
  • Visible light - 0.4 to 0.8 micron
  • Ultraviolet - Shorter than 0.4 micron

Note: A micron is one millionth of a meter. Light waves are measured and expressed in wavelength rather than frequency.

noise interference and distortion
Noise, interference and distortion
  • Noise:unwanted signals that coincide with the desired signals. Noise is random, undesirable electric energy.
  • Two type of noise:internal and external noise.
  • Internal noise: Caused by internal devices/components in the circuits.
  • External noise:noise that is generated outside the circuit. Eg: atmospheric noise,solar noise, cosmic noise, man made noise.
  • Interference-one type of external noise
  • Distortion: signal being distorted
limitations in communication system
Limitations in communication system
  • Physical constraint

-Delay, attenuation, bandwidth limitation, etc

  • Technological constraint
  • hardware.
  • Expertise

- economy, law

frequency spectrum bandwidth
Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth
  • The frequency spectrum of a waveform consists of all frequencies contained in the waveform and their amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain.
  • The bandwidth of a frequency spectrum is the range of of frequencies contained in the spectrum.It is calculated by subtracting the lowest frequency from the highest.
frequency spectrum bandwidth cont d
Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth(cont’d)
  • Bandwidth of the information signal equals to the difference between the highest and lowest frequency contained in the signal.
  • Similarly, bandwidth of communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequency that the channel allow to pass through it
slide53

At this stage you should be able to:

● Explain the functions of the three main parts of an electronic communication system.

● Describe the system used to classify

different types of electronic communication

and list example of each type.

● Discuss the role of modulation and

multiplexing in facilitating signal transmission.