Pitch Pitch refers to the rate of vibration of the vocal cords. The higher the vibration, the higher the pitch. Thus sounds are said with a high pitch, low pitch or a normal pitch. Pitch of a sound is an auditory property that enables a listener to place it on a scale going from low to high… When speech goes up in frequency, it also goes up in pitch (Ladefoged, p. 23) Levels of Pitch 4 extra High 3 High na 2 Normal ____________imagi 1 Low tion Normal conversation moves between high and normal pitch with low pitch typically signaling the end of an utterance. Extra high level is used to express a strong emotion such as surprise, enthusiasm, or disbelief and used in contrastive or emphatic stress.
Linguistic info conveyed by pitch Syntactic information : pitch marks the boundaries of grammatical units. I have this little sister Lola /she is small / and very funny.
Linguistic information conveyed by Pitch Lexical Information: Pitch can differentiate meaning of identical words
Intonation A pattern of changing pitch during an utterance (a phrase, clause, sentence) to convey linguistic information. The variations taking place in the pitch of the voice in connected speech. The pattern of changing pitch is perceived as the melody - fallingor risingintonation.
Intonation Pattern The change of pitch starts on the tonic syllable and continues till the end of the Intonation unit. You must be *VERY brave
Intonation Phrase Intonation Phrase/ Tone unit: The part of an utterance over which a particular intonation patterns extends: When you wanna take a picture / just press this button Enough of them / were supportive of what I did / even if they couldn’t tell me
Functions of Intonation 1- Intonation can reflect the grammatical function of an utterance (i.e. it is a syntactic marker: it may signal a phrase boundary, differentiae declarative statements from questions, or denote incompleteness or uncertainty ) - She’s gone - She’s gone? " Do you want me to do it NOW?" “Do it now” 2- Convey an attitude or emotion or a mental state. That is, intonation signals speaker’s attitude toward what she is saying. Great! Great!
Types of Intonation Falling Intonation:The pitch begins to fall on the accented syllable and it continues to fall till the end of the tone unit. assertions, matter-of-fact statements, finality. Rising Intonation:The pitch begins to rise on the accented syllable and it continues to fall rise till the end of the tone unit. questioning, uncertain statements, continuation.
Falling Intonation NO. it will RAIN in a minute.
Falling Intonation Declarative statements I am going home wh- questions Who will help? Where are you going? Exclamations How beautiful! What a nice day! Imperatives Get out1 Turn the lights on! Question tags when you expect an answer “Yes”. The car is ready, isn’t it?
Rising Intonation Yes/no questionsAre you feeling better? Tag questions when we expect a negative answer or tags intended as a genuine Yes/No answer. You like chocolate, don't you? You have left the door open, haven't you? He usually arrives at NOON, DOESn't he? Statements to encourage the listener: Come on! You can make it. Come On! It won't take a minute. Yes-no questions in statement form he is gone? Incomplete sentences (speaker intends to continue) If you wait here,…. Well if you are going to play,….
Activity 1 Say with what intonation pattern each of these sentences is said: 1- I like tea 2- Do you like chocolate? 3- If you listen to me, … 4- You would like this coat, don’t you? (expecting a negative answer) 5- What’s your ID?
Activity 2: Match the meanings of each version to the interpretation below She DIDn’t take the car She didn’t take the CAR SHE didn’t take the car Someone else must have So stop accusing her She must have gone on foot or by bus
Activity 3: Match the meanings of each version to the interpretation below he thought the film was GOOD He thought the FILM was good HE thought the film was good But the music was awful She didn’t, though Oh really? The critics hated it
Intonation in Arabic Arabic and English have fairly similar intonation patterns. Arabic learners still have problems in English intonation as they tend to adopt Arabic intonation. English mainly uses word order and grammatical words to form questions, intonation is the major signal for questions in colloquial Arabic. There are various intonation patterns in English showing various meanings depending on the speaker’s intention (friendly, polite, detached, reserved, reassuring) which the Arabic speaker is not aware of. This may cause Arabic speakers to sound abrupt and commanding when speaking English.
Differences between English and Arabic intonation patterns 1- The intonation pattern of the tag-question in Arabic is always rising, the same as that of any other question without a question word. English tags with a rising intonation means the speaker is expecting disagreement from the listener; if he/she expects agreement, a falling intonation is used. Arabic speaker of tag questions expects, rather than demands, agreement
Differences between English and Arabic intonation patterns 2- Calling on persons: in English: If the name is stressed on the last syllable, e.g. (Marie), it may take the rising intonation pattern. If the name is stressed on the first syllable such as "Harry and Jane", it may take the falling pattern. In Arabic, the most commonly used pattern is the second case.
Suggestions for Teaching Intonation (1) T. must make sure that their students understand the stress patterns and weak forms. T. must show learners the relationships between grammatical patterns and intonation (questions, statements), e.g. falling intonation for affirmative or WH. questions; Rising intonation for tone questions and yes –no questions Attitudinal intonation should be introduced contextually so that the learner can associate between the type of intonation and the spoken attitude.
Suggestions for Teaching Intonation (2) 4. Intonation arrows: draw a little box over each stressed syllable. Add a small intonation arrow coming out from the right of each box, showing the direction of the intonation e.g. if the intonation starts high and then falls, draw arrow from the top- right corner of the box going diagonally down. 5. Role Play and dialogues 6. It’s necessary to produce intonation after native speakers model, tape recorder, computer and radio.
Suggestions for Teaching Intonation (3) 7. One-Word Conversation Write a number of single words(e.g. yes, today, sorry, bread etc.) on pieces of paper. Make groups of three-and give each group one of the pieces of paper. Tell the class a situation-(e.g. “Two people think the third person is a thief.” It is one person’s birthday.”) Then the students must have a conversation, but the only word anyone can say is the one on their paper to express different ideas or emotions through intonations.
Suggestions for Teaching Intonation (4) 8. Marking Texts: Ask learners to listen to a short dialogue while looking at the printed text. The learners must (a) decide which syllables are prominent (i.e. are strongly stressed in the sentence) – and then- (b) which direction the intonation moves after these stresses. When learners are sure, they should mark the text (using the boxes).