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Traditional African Society

Traditional African Society

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Traditional African Society

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  1. Traditional African Society

  2. Common Traits or Characteristics of Traditional African Tribal Life • The good of the group comes ahead of the good of the individual. • All land is owned by the group. • Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. • Important ceremonies at different parts of a person’s life. • Special age and work associations. • Deep respect for ancestors. • Religion is an important part of everyday life. • Government is in the hands of the chiefs [kings].

  3. Traditional African Religion ANIMISM 1. Belief in one remote Supreme Being. 2. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all things. 3. Ancestor veneration. 4. Belief in magic, charms, and fetishes. 5.Diviner mediator between the tribe and God.

  4. African Diviner (Shaman)

  5. World of the Spirits Dogon “Spirit House”

  6. Other Religions in Africa Came into North Africa in the late 600’s C.E. Popular because of its belief in equality and ability uniting several communities together under one ruler. ISLAM  25%* Nigeria largest sub-Saharan Muslim countries. CHRISTIANITY  20% Christianity became strong in Epypt and Ethopia even before in was accepted in Rome 13th and 14th centuries, Ethiopian Christian state emerged and traced its origins back to the marriage of Soloman and Sheba

  7. Churches of Lalibela Arc of the Covenant? Mary Magdalene?

  8. 1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes

  9. Northeast Africa: Nubia Culture began as early as 3000 B.C.E Extends from southern Egypt to northern Sudan along the Nile River Also called Kush and Ethiopia; “Nubia” comes from the world gold or black Best known kingdom was the one that ruled Egypt during the 700-600 B.C.E The agricultural belt along the Nile was very narrow. Exported gold, copper, diorite stones (mainly to Egypt and the Muslims.

  10. Northeast Africa: Aksum Began in the 3rd Century C.E. Grew in power as the Roman declined Traded Ivory, glass crystal, brass, and copper items Kingdom went from Yemen (across the Red Sea) to Nubia and the Ethiopian Highlands Decline began with fighting between the Byzantines and Sassanid (Persia) in the late 600’s and was finished with the Muslim expansion in the 700’s

  11. AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

  12. West Africa: Ghana Began in the 4th century C.E. by the Berbers (Nomadic tribe) The kingdom was matrilineal (King’s sister provided the next King) Power grew in the 10th century when traders began to use camels to cross the Sahara. Ghana was rich in gold, ivory, copper, salt, and slaves Required local tribes to pay tributes and let Muslims have power within cities. A split in the Berbers around 1075 created a Civil War which led to the downfall of the kingdom.

  13. West Africa: Mali Began around 750 C.E. and competed with Ghana (split from it) Began by the family Keita. Controlled trade routes to the rest of Africa. Based on the Niger River which it used to transport goods such as gold and crops. The historical founder of Mali was the magician, Sundjata (1230-1255). Began as a royal slave and magician who inherited the empire. He’s famous for his expansion into the gold trading territories. Called the Lion Prince, he also introduced the cultivation and weaving of cotton to the area. Most significant king was Mansa Musa (1312-1337). Expanded territory and Islam into West Africa. Conquered Timbuctu, Gao, and Djenne. Decline of empire occurred after his death when territories rebelled.

  14. West Africa: Songhay Began in the 1000’s but became an empire in the 1300’s after the Ghana and Mali empires declined. It was the largest in African history going from Niger to the Atlantic Ocean, controlling the Niger River. Its capital was at Gao. It’s first king, Sonni Ali, expanded Songhay’s influence and promoted Islam. His son was overthrown by Askia the Great when he denounced Islam. Askia will bring Songhay to its greatest power. Trade consisted of gold, salt, and slaves. Civil War caused the downfall of Songhay in the late 1500’s.

  15. West Africa: Yoruba Yoruba people may have been in Southern Nigeria since 300 B.C.E. but their kingdom thrived from 1100 C.E. to 1700 C.E. It was replaced by the Oyo Empire (made of Yoruba people but helped by Portugese merchants. Political power came form a council of chiefs and the King. Primarily farmers of cash crops (yams and cassava), they also will trade ivory, wood carvings, and slaves

  16. West Africa: Benin Edo people under the rule of Ewuare the Great form a kingdom in 1440 C.E. It’s power was based on the control of the Niger River. It traded ivory, bronze, gold, blue fabric, pepper, leopard skins. Worked closely with the Portugese traders. Decline came when the English took control of more African lands.

  17. Web link The Bantu people originally lived in West Africa. About 3,000 years ago, speakers Bantu language began to migrate south and east. The first wave of Bantu migration followed two paths into the rain forest around the Congo River. There many of them lived in small villages And farmed along the riverbanks. The dense rain forest did not provide much room for farming. Some Bantu groups moved toward the east coast of Southern Africa, where the land was more open and better suited for growing crops. Others headed down the west coast. Herders Bantu Migration

  18. East Africa: Swahili Began in the 1st century C.E when Bantu speaking people migrated from The interior and settled along the coastline between Kenya and Zimbabwe. Created a trading empire. Traded ivory, sandalwood, ebony, and gold with Arabs and Muslims. (Swahili comes from the arabic word for coast) Began to decline when the Portugese became more active in the area.

  19. Central Africa: Kongo Started as an agricultural settlement but also trade salt, wood carvings, copper, iron, and slaves. People were there hundreds of years before the kingdom began in the 13th century. Their king divided the kingdom into 8 provinces and ruled through the regional leaders. They built great stone building. Lost power in the 1600’s when the Portuguese demand for slave could not be meet and the Portuguese attacked.

  20. Central Africa: Great Zimbabwe and Mwene Mutapa Began in the 15th century as a centralized state under Mwene Mutapa. Had a period of rapid expansion followed by an internal division and civil war. After the 1700’s only a small kingdom of Mwene Mutapa survived. Traded gold but the farming and grazing land was very weak.

  21. Problems of Tribalism Today 1. The tribe is more important than the nation. 2. Communication problems. 3. Inter-tribal warfare  civil wars. 4. Tribal favorites for government jobs: Nepotism Breaks down tribal traditions. Urbanization: Tribal intermingling on the job.