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Nomenclature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Nomenclature. Names and formulas. Using Flow Charts. Ionic Formulas. Ions combine in small, whole number proportions so that the sum of oxidation numbers will be zero! Cations retain the name of the element and always comes first. Anions keep the root name but add “ide” ending. Examples….

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nomenclature

Nomenclature

Names and formulas

ionic formulas
Ionic Formulas
  • Ions combine in small, whole number proportions so that the sum of oxidation numbers will be zero!
  • Cations retain the name of the element and always comes first.
  • Anions keep the root name but add “ide” ending.
examples
Examples…
  • Lithium + chlorine
  • magnesium + bromine
  • aluminum + oxygen

Lithium Chloride

Magnesium Bromide

Aluminum Oxide

transition metals
Transition Metals
  • Some of the transition metals have variable oxidation numbers.

(They have more than one.)

Roman numerals are used to indicate oxidation numbers for elements with variable oxidation states.

Roman numerals are always positive!

examples1
Examples…
  • Nickel (III) oxide
  • Nickel (II) oxide
  • Fe2O3
  • FeO

Ni2O3

NiO

Iron (III) Oxide

Iron (II) Oxide

polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • a group of atoms that stay together and have one oxidation number.
  • They combine like single atom ions, so that the total charge must be zero.
  • No name change here
examples2
Examples…
  • Na 1+ and SO42-
  • Ca 2+ and OH1-
  • NH41+ and O2-
  • NH41+ and PO43-

Sodium Sulfate

Calcium Hydroxide

Ammonium Oxide

Ammonium Phosphate

polyatomic ions charged building blocks polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non metals
POLYATOMIC IONS (charged building blocks)Polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non-metals.

Ions with -1 charge

perbromate BrO4-1

bromate BrO3-1

bromite BrO2-1

hypobromite BrO-1

perchlorate ClO4-1

chlorate ClO3-1

chlorite ClO2-1

hypochlorite ClO-1

periodate IO4-1

iodate IO3-1

iodite IO2-1

hypoiodite IO-1

nitrate NO3-1

nitrite NO2-1

hydroxide OH-1

cyanide CN-1

acetate C2H3O2-1

Permanganate MnO4-1

bicarbonate HCO3-1

Ions with a -2 Charge

carbonate CO3-2

sulfate SO4-2

sulfite SO3-2

chromate CrO4-2

dichromate Cr2O7-2

oxalate C2O4-2

Ions with a -3 Charge

phosphate PO4-3

phosphite PO3-3

arsenate AsO4-3

Ions with +1 charge

ammonium ion NH4+1

name origins
Name Origins
  • “ate” suffix most common
    • bromate BrO3-1
  • “ite” suffix 1 oxygen less

than “ate”

    • bromite BrO2-1
  • “hypo” prefix 1 oxygen less

than “ite”

    • hypobromite BrO-1
  • “per” prefix 1 oxygen more

than “ate

    • perbromate BrO4-1
name covalent bounds
Name Covalent Bounds

NO2

CO2

PO3

SF4

SO3

  • Covalent Bonds
    • Between 2 or more non-metals
naming molecules
Naming Molecules
  • The least electronegative element comes first.
    • Increases Left to Right
    • Decreases top to bottom

2. A prefix is always used for the first and second element to indicate quantity and the suffix “ide” is applied

electronegativity
Electronegativity

The ability of an atom to attract the electrons of another

atom when bonded

INCREASING

DECREASING

prefixes to know
Prefixes to Know

1 = mono

2 = di

3 = tri

4 = tetra

5 = penta

6 = hexa

7 = hepta

(NEVER use the prefix Mono on the first element )

examples3
Examples…

PCl3

  • phosphorus trichloride
  • nitrogen trihydride
  • diphosphoruspentoxide
  • tetraiodineheptoxide
  • sulfur hexachloride
  • phosphorus pentoxide
  • dihydrogen monoxide

NH3

P2O5

I4O7

SCl6

PO5

H2O

examples4
Examples…

Carbon Dioxide

  • CO2
  • CO
  • SO3
  • N2O3
  • N2O5
  • AlCl3

Carbon Monoxide

Sulfur Trioxide

Dinitrogen Trioxide

Dinitrogen Pentaoxide

Aluminum Trichloride