OUT LINE • Introduction • The supporting Stations at BMKG • Block Diagram of ARG-BMKG • Data Logger Design • Power Supply Design • Application Program Design • Communication Data • GPRS wireless communication system • Laboratory Test • Field Test • Conclusions Wayang Kulit - Indonesia
Introduction BMKG INDONESIA • Archipelago of 17,508 islands • Area is 1.919.440 km2 (30% of lands and 70% of the seas) • Seasons : Dry and Rainy • Indonesia’s Population:241,973,879 (2010 est.) • Population growth rate: 1.45% (2010 est.) BadanMeteorogi, KlimatologidanGeofisika (BMKG) • Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency • BMKG have 5 National Regions Centre, with 119 Meteorological stations, 21Climatological stations,31 Geophysical stations and 1 Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Toraja-Indonesia
The supporting Stations at BMKG BMKG • The supporting Stations: • 202 Automatic Weather Station (AWS), • 79 Automatic Agroclimate Weather Station (AAWS), • 104 Automatic Rain Gauge Stations (ARG), and • more than 4.000 conventional rain stations. • The conventional rain stations was observed by observer who have not special education in meteorology or climatology. • That’s way we still need a lot of Automatic Rain Gauge(ARG) to coverall of Indonesian's area and • obtaining high quality data.
Data Logger Design BMKG The ARG–BMKG’s data logger has made in a simple and compact design. It is easy to operate and to process the mounting. The physical ARG–BMKG’s data logger is formed aluminium profile based withdimensions 14cm x 16cm x 5cm. In front of section of data logger are placed one LCD displaywith 16 characters - 2 lines, one matrix keypad 4 x 4 and two LED indicators. At the bottom of data logger are placed a ports for connectors, including: one connector to rain sensor, one connector to thebattery and two DB9 connectors to transferring data with GSM modem and computer/notebook.
Power Supply Design The Power Supply system design uses a solarcell 16-20 WP and one Lithium ion dry battery 12 V with17-18 AH capacity for back up.
Application Program Design This program serves to display a real time data measurement and process downloadrainfall data from SD Card in a data logger. The ARG-BMKG’s application programsmade by Labview software version 2011. The file Format is already formed the executablefile (.exe). This installation process is easy and does not require additional programs.
Communication Data Hand Phone RS 232 SMS/misscall GSM/GPRS Modem GPRS Web Server PC Server Mirror (Backup Data) RS 485 PC Monitor ARG Internet USB Web Design Notebook Web base Monitoring
GPRS wireless communication system GPRS is a simple system and have a strong support from the cellular provider in Indonesia where the ARG-BMKG are placed. GPRS Modemuse product of sierra wireless, Fastrack Xtend series. This GPRS Modem can be programmed tofacilitate the setting up and operation.
Laboratory Test The measurement is done using a rain gauge from environdata production with a resolution of 0.2 mm. Tests carried out in Calibration Laboratory of BMKG, calibrators using from Hanil.Lab, South Korea. Based on the testing result, it is known that the ARG–BMKG’s data acquisitionfor a rain gauge type tipping bucket can work well. With the variation rain intensity 40 mm/hours(light rain/drizzel) to 250 mm/hours (heavy rain/showers), without any error counting or double signal (cloning signal)
Field Test BMKG • The field test was performed on climatological station at Semarang, iCentral of Java. The field’s testing is done bycomparing data from 3 rain gauges, installed on the same location and the same time. As comparison’s data, we used data from the ARG-BMKG, AWS-Vaisala and observatory rain gauge(conventional). • Other locations: • Meteorological, Climatological dan Geophysical Academy (AMG) • Citeko Meteorological Station. • The data acquisition of these trials are in the graph.
Conclusions BMKG’s technicians have successful developed an automatic rainfall observation system-based on microcontroller ATMega 128, GPRS and web server systems. This instrument names ARG-BMKG (Automatic Rain Gauge - Meteorogical, Climatological and Geophysical Agency). The ARG-BMKG have been tested through laboratory test and field test with the result was satisfactory. Hopefully, this engineering program can improve knowledge, skill and trouble shooting every BMKG’s technician, so they can support BMKG’s weather instruments maintenance systems in Indonesia. Next, we will develop the rain observation network to obtain the high quality data.
Thank You Ibnu Sofwan Lukito, Sunarjo and Juana Rimba Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika Jl. Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran Jakarta Pusat  Jakarta Indonesia Phone: +62.21.4246321 Fax: +62.21.4246703 Website: http://www.bmkg.go.id