Opium Poppy: • Are grown legally to supply: • painkilling • cough suppressing • antidiarrheal medicines to people all over the world. • Illegally grown to produce: • cooked opium • illegal morphine • heroin
Opium: • Opium is the sticky white sap that comes from ripening seed pods of the opium poppy plant. • Farmers cut the pod to let the opium seep from the plant. • Then return a day later to collect the sap.
Opium: • Once the sap is collected it is allowed to dry in the sun. • Turns into a thick, dark brown, sticky gum. • At this point this substance is known as “Raw Opium” • Can be separated into 3 natural substances: • Morphine • Codeine • Thebaine • Can be smoked or eaten at this stage. Raw Opium is usually boiled in water to remove debris and to enhance the psychoactive substances. • Becomes “Cooked Opium”
Most common ways opium is introduced into the body: • Eaten: • Effects occur more slowly because the process of digestion weakens the drug as it passes through the various organs before being absorbed into the bloodstream. • Smoked: • Effects occur very quickly because the opiate chemicals are passed through the lungs, where they are quickly absorbed by blood vessels and carried to the brain.
Opium A.K.A Block, Black Stuff, or the Big O… • When used opium enters the bloodstream which carries the drug to the brain… • Opium then attaches to Opioid U receptors. • Slows down uptake of neurotransmitters that control.. • Moods • Movement • High lasts about 4 hours.
Physiological Effects: • Slows respiration and heartbeat • Suppresses the cough reflex • Movement is slowed because limbs feels heavy • Blockage of Pain: • Slows CNS which consists of: • Brain • Spinal Cord • Blocks pain signals coming from the spinal cord traveling to the brain.
Psychological Effects: • Euphoria (well-being) • Reduces anxiety • Drowsiness
Side effects of Opium use: • Constipation • Nausea • Vomiting • Immune function is decreased • Increase risk for disease • Tolerance • The brain stops producing endorphins and the user must use more of the drug to get high. • Dependence
History: • 4000 BC: Used as a narcotic in Sumerian and European cultures • 19th Century: • Opium Wars: • Against Chinese prohibitions, British Merchants began smuggling Opium into China • China tried to stop Opium trade in China causing a series of battles between Britain and China. - Opium is grown in the United States and is also imported from other countries. • 1905: U.S congress bans Opium • 2007: Afghanistan accounts for 95% of the world’s Opium Poppy crop. • 2009:FDA announces plans to further restrict access to opioid-based pain relievers by American citizens and their doctors.
Medical Use: • Schedule II • Controlled substance • Cure for diarrhea • Pain medication
Works Cited: "DEA, Drug Scheduling." Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. 26 Oct. 2009 <http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/scheduling.html> "Encyclopedia of Drugs: Opiates." Drogen - Drugs - Drogues. 26 Oct. 2009 http://www.drug-encyclopedia.eu/DW_EN/opiates.shtml "Opium - What Kind of Drug Is It?: Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances ." eNotes - Literature Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and More. . 26 Oct. 2009 <http://www.enotes.com/drugs-substances-encyclopedia/opium>. "Opium Timeline." Opioids : past, present and future. 26 Oct. 2009 <http://www.opioids.com/timeline/>. "frontline: drug wars: the buyers: pharmacology: opium | PBS." PBS. 26 Oct. 2009 <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/buyers/pharmacology/opium.html>.