Unit 7 EARLY ROME
ROMAN ORIGINS • FOUNDING OF ANCIENT ROME • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aLsXEqPX0Q • Romulus and Remus • “Hut of Romulus” • Ancestors of the Trojans… • Why did the Romans attach themselves to Troy?
Roman Beginnings • Carthage – 800 B.C. • Rome – 753 B.C. • Syracuse – 734 B.C.
Early History • Founded in 753 B.C. • Etruscans to the North, Greeks in the South • Weak historical evidence exists, much attributed to Livy • He wrote to glorify the Roman Republic during its fall • Annalesmaximi – yearly posting of important events. • These are unfortunately lost, so were are unsure how accurate the history is
Roman Names • Praenomen – First Name • Nomengentilicium – Family Name • Cognomen – Surname • Gaius Julius Caesar - Belongs to the family Julia, nicknamed Caesar • Women would only have one name, the feminine version of the family name…. • M. Tullius Cicero’s Daughter - Tulia
Who were the Romans? • Viewed their ancestors as outcasts and ethnically mixed • VERSION 1: • Romulus granted land and citizenship to criminal • Rape of the Sabine women • VERSION 2: • Ancestors of Aeneas, a Trojan hero. Wandered to Italy after the fall of Troy and married a Latin princess
FROM VILLAGE TO CITY • Huts on the Palatine hill date to 1000 B.C. • Forum – Drained and paved in about 650 B.C. • Open, public space • What does this compare to? • About 500 B.C. – wealthy moving to the palatine hill
The Etruscans • Not sure where they came from • Probably developed from the Villanovan culture • First iron age civilization in Italy • Developed urbanization, stone houses, public architecture, and anthropomorphic religion
Government and Society in the Early Republic • “Seven Kings of Rome” • Expelled in 510 B.C. • “Res publica” – the public matter
The Ruling Class • Assembly – all citizens voted • Consuls – two chief magistrates, elected every year • Why? • Senate – advise magistrates; “council of elders” • They were families descendent from the kings of Rome • Comitia centuriata – “centuriate assembly”; most important assembly • Made up of wealthy soldiers; overruled the poorer classes • Included a lot of cavalry • Military exploits were important • Patron-client relationship
The Ruling Class • Imperium – signified power to command the army, condemn people to death • Had civil, judicial, and military aspect • Could only be used OUTSIDE of the city; unless for a triumph • Very important – keep this in mind when we discuss Julius Caesar! • Symbol of imperium was the fasces • Bundle of sticks surrounding an axe • Fascist is derived from this term • Praetor – public judge; name for consuls prior to their establishment • Judicial power lay in the hands of the highest ranking men
The Ruling Class • Quaestors – financial officials; • Censors – recorded population for citizenship; primarily for military service • Also had power over senatorial membership • The Senate technically had no legal authority • All they could do was SUGGEST legislation • Over time, this began to carry a lot of weight • Often the committees would not pass legislation without the recommendation of the Senate
Twelve Tables • First public statement of Roman law • 471 B.C. – conciliumplebis, “council of the plebs” • After 342 B.C. one consul was always a plebian • 172 B.C. – both consuls were plebs for the first time • Plebeians slowly began to integrate themselves • Novus Homo – “new man” • First of the family to achieve a magistracy • Dictator – absolute authority; elected temporarily in times of need
Rome’s Expansion • 396 B.C. - Latins banded together, defeated Veii • First professional army ever; men were paid a stipend for their service • Only those with land were eligible for the army • Poor citizens used the scutum
Cincinnatus • 519-430 B.C. • Dictator of Rome twice • Model of virtue, civic leadership, humility and lack of personal ambition • Cincinnati, Ohio is named after him
Sack of Rome • 390 B.C. – sacked by the Gauls • Most likely on their way to Syracuse • EFFECT: Potentially destroyed a TON of ancient Roman historical sources
Rome’s Expansion • 343-290 B.C. - Samnite Wars • Continued to expand, made peace with neighboring peoples • Created a Commonwealth of allies
Roman Governance/Military • Appian Way – road from Rome to Capua • Rome ruled liberally; primarily were interested in soldiers • Extended citizenship to some conquered peoples, but not others • Legion – approx. 5,000 men • Century – approx. 90 men • Maniple – about 120-160 men • Approx. two centuries
Pyrrhic War • 280-275 B.C. • Rome is attacked south of Tarentum • Greeks call upon Pyrrhus of Epirus • This is the first time Rome is fighting a Hellenistic army • Pyrrhus wins successive battles, but eventually loses the war • EFFECT: Rome now controls the entire Italian Peninsula! • “Pyrrhic Victory” • What major issue does this illustrate about fighting the Roman Republic?