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Old Testament. The Books of Poetry. © John Stevenson, 2009. Problem. God as…. Man as…. Job. Sovereign. On his face before God. Book. Psalms. Prayer & Worship. Holy. Before the throne of God. Proverbs. Conduct. All-wise. Receiving instruction. Pain & suffering. Ecclesiastes.

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the books of poetry
Old Testament

The Books of Poetry

© John Stevenson, 2009

slide2
Problem

God as…

Man as…

Job

Sovereign

On his face before God

Book

Psalms

Prayer & Worship

Holy

Before the throne of God

Proverbs

Conduct

All-wise

Receiving instruction

Pain & suffering

Ecclesiastes

Meaning & significance

Creator

Under the sun

Song of Solomon

Love

Lover of His people

In a love relationship

poetic literature

Poetic Literature

Wisdom Literature

Job

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Psalms

Song of Solomon

poetic literature4
Wisdom Literature

Poetic Literature

Narrator is viewed as the wise voice of experience

Touch the heart

Touch the mind

Narrator is viewed as a normal man

Focus on human emotion

Focus on wisdom

Love for God and for others

Living before God and with others

the book of suffering
Job

The Book of Suffering

the story
The Story
  • The Heavenly Challenge
  • Job’s Calamities
  • Satan’s Second Accusation
  • Job’s Continuing Endurance
  • Job’s Three Friends
the cast of characters
The Cast of Characters
  • Job
  • Mrs. Job
  • God
  • Satan
  • Three Friends
    • Eliphaz
    • Bildad
    • Zophar
  • Elihu
chapters 1 2
Overview of the Book of Job

Chapters 3-31

Chapters 33-37

Chapters 38-41

Chapter 42

Chapters 1-2

Job’s three friends

Elihu’s speeches

God speaks

Historical epilogue: Job Restored

Dialogue & Discourse

Historical prologue: Job Tested

Prose Section

Poetry Section

Plain language

Highly ornate

Written in pure Hebrew

Contains many expressions characteristic of Chaldaean

when god finally speaks
When God Finally Speaks...
  • He does not give Job any answers to his questions
  • He does not give Job any comfort in his situation
job 38 1 3

Job 38:1-3

Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind and said,

"Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?

Now gird up your loins like a man, and I will ask you, and you instruct Me!

job 38 4 7

Job 38:4-7

"Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

Tell Me, if you have understanding, who set its measurements, since you know?

Or who stretched the line on it?

On what were its bases sunk?

Or who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?"

job 40 1

Job 40:1

Then the LORD said to Job, "Will the faultfinder contend with the Almighty? Let him who reproves God answer it."

job 42 1 2

Job 42:1-2

Then Job answered the LORD, and said, “I know that Thou canst do all things, And that no purpose of Thine can be thwarted.”

job 42 5 6

Job 42:5-6

"I have heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear; but now my eye sees Thee; therefore I retract, and I repent in dust and ashes."

job 42 7

Job 42:7

And it came about after the LORD had spoken these words to Job, that the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, "My wrath is kindled against you and against your two friends, because you have not spoken of Me what is right as My servant Job has.

job 42 8 9

Job 42:8-9

“Now therefore, take for yourselves seven bulls and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves, and My servant Job will pray for you. For I will accept him so that I may not do with you according to your folly, because you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has.”

lessons from job
Lessons from Job
  • God is both all-loving and all-powerful
  • There are no simple answers
  • Expression of grief & trouble is appropriate, but not to pass judgment on God
  • God is in control, even when it is not obvious to our eyes
  • God has a purpose in what he allows, even if we do not know what it is
lessons from job19
Lessons from Job
  • Tragedy can serve as a wake-up call
  • God has not remained distant from us in our pain
  • Job is about God’s condemnation

Will you really annul My judgment?

Will you condemn Me that you may be justified? (Job 40:8).

God was condemned in Christ.

the hymnbook of god
Psalms

The Hymnbook of God

characteristics of the psalms
Characteristics of the Psalms
  • A thousand years of history
  • Musical instruments
  • Quoted in New Testament
  • Relates our response to God
  • A “sensory” book
what are the different types of psalms
What are the different types of Psalms?
  • Praise Psalms
  • Songs of Thanksgiving
  • Royal Psalms
  • Wisdom Psalms
  • Psalms of Remembrance
  • Psalms of Lament
  • Imprecatory Psalms
slide25
Psalm 1

But his delight is in the law of the LORD,

And in His law he meditates day and night.

psalm 1 3

Psalm 1:3

  • And in whatever he does, he prospers.

He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water,

Which yields its fruit in its season

And its leaf does not wither;

psalm 2 1 2

Psalm 2:1-2

Why are the nations in an uproar,

And the peoples devising a vain thing?

The kings of the earth take their stand,

And the rulers take counsel together

Against the LORD and against His Anointed.

psalm 2 6 7

Psalm 2:6-7

6 But as for Me, I have installed My King Upon Zion,

My holy mountain."

7 I will surely tell of the decree of the LORD:

He said to Me, 'Thou art My Son,

Today I have begotten Thee.

psalm 2 8 9

Psalm 2:8-9

8 'Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Thine inheritance,

And the very ends of the earth as Thy possession.

9 'Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron,

Thou shalt shatter them like earthenware.'"

slide30
The title Elohim is used much more

than is the name Yahweh

psalm 42 1 3

Psalm 42:1-3

1 As the deer pants for the water brooks,

So my soul pants for Thee, O God.

2 My soul thirsts for God, for the living God;

When shall I come and appear before God?

3 My tears have been my food day and night,

While they say to me all day long,

"Where is your God?"

psalm 42 4

Psalm 42:4

These things I remember, and I pour out my soul within me.

For I used to go along with the throng and lead them in procession to the house of God,

With the voice of joy and thanksgiving, a multitude keeping festival.

  • You cannot rest on yesterday’s experiences
  • Mutual support & encouragement
psalm 42 5

Psalm 42:5

Why are you in despair, O my soul?

And why have you become disturbed within me?

Hope in God, for I shall again praise Him

For the help of His presence.

psalm 45 1

Psalm 45:1

For the choir director; according to the Shoshannim.

A Maskil of the sons of Korah.

A Song of Love.

My heart overflows with a good theme;

I address my verses to the King;

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

psalm 45 7 8

Psalm 45:7-8

7 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness;

Therefore God, Thy God, has anointed Thee With the oil of joy above Thy fellows.

8 All Thy garments are fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia;

Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments have made Thee glad.

psalm 89 1 2

Psalm 89:1-2

Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite.

I will sing of the lovingkindness of the LORD forever;

To all generations I will make known Your faithfulness with my mouth.

2 For I have said, “Lovingkindness will be built up forever;

In the heavens You will establish Your faithfulness.”

psalm 89 3 4

Psalm 89:3-4

I have made a covenant with My chosen;

I have sworn to David My servant,

4 I will establish your seed forever

And build up your throne to all generations.

Selah.

psalm 100 1 3

Psalm 100:1-3

1 Psalm for Thanksgiving.

Shout joyfully to the LORD, all the earth.

2 Serve the LORD with gladness;

Come before Him with joyful singing.

3 Know that the LORD Himself is God;

It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves;

We are His people and the sheep of His pasture.

psalm 100 4 5

Psalm 100:4-5

4 Enter His gates with thanksgiving,

And His courts with praise.

Give thanks to Him; bless His name.

5 For the LORD is good;

His lovingkindness is everlasting,

And His faithfulness to all generations.

psalm 110 1

Psalm 110:1

A Psalm of David.

The LORD says to my Lord:

“Sit at My right hand,

Until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy feet.”

the psalms of praise psalms 113 118 sung at passover
The Hallel

The Psalms of Praise

Psalms 113-118

(Sung at Passover)

psalm 118 21 23

Psalm 118:21-23

21 I shall give thanks to Thee, for Thou hast answered me;

And Thou hast become my salvation.

22 The stone which the builders rejected

Has become the chief corner stone.

23 This is the LORD's doing;

It is marvelous in our eyes.

psalm 120 1 2

Psalm 120:1-2

1 A Song of Ascents, of David.

I Was glad when they said to me,

"Let us go to the house of the LORD."

2 Our feet are standing

Within your gates, O Jerusalem,

psalm 120 3 4

Psalm 120:3-4

3 Jerusalem, that is built

As a city that is compact together;

4 To which the tribes go up, even the tribes of the LORD--

An ordinance for Israel--

To give thanks to the name of the LORD.

psalm 134 1 3

Psalm 134:1-3

1 A Song of Ascents.

Behold, bless the LORD, all servants of the LORD,

Who serve by night in the house of the LORD!

2 Lift up your hands to the sanctuary,

And bless the LORD.

3 May the LORD bless you from Zion,

He who made heaven and earth.

the value of the psalms
The Value of the Psalms
  • A Commentary of the Old Testament
  • Liturgy for Worship
  • A Pattern for Prayer
  • Wisdom for Living
title of the book

Title of the book

The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel (Proverbs 1:1).

From the

root word

lv;m'

proverbs 1 2 4

Proverbs 1:2-4

2 To know wisdom and instruction,

To discern the sayings of understanding,

3 To receive instruction in wise behavior,

Righteousness, justice and equity;

4 To give prudence to the naive,

To the youth knowledge and discretion,

proverbs 1 5 6

Proverbs 1:5-6

5 A wise man will hear and increase in learning,

And a man of understanding will acquire wise counsel,

6 To understand a proverb and a figure,

The words of the wise and their riddles.

proverbs 1 7

Proverbs 1:7

The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge;

Fools despise wisdom and instruction.

  • A Fear that Drives Away
  • A Fear that brings Wonder
psalms
Proverbs

Book of Wisdom

Psalms

Speaks to our Spirit

Speaks to our Intellect

Life in the prayer closet

Life out in the street

Book of Worship

Teach us how to be holy before God

Teach us how to practice holiness before men

Love the Lord with all your heart, soul, and mind

Love your neighbor as yourself

lessons from the proverbs
Lessons from the Proverbs
  • The Universal need for Wisdom
  • The Universal Arena of Wisdom
  • What is Wise is also what is Good
  • Principles rather than Promises
  • A real view of the real world
  • Christians are called to be street-smart
ecclesiastes

ECCLESIASTES

The Question of Life

slide61
The Megilloth

("The Scrolls")

Note: English equivalent dates are only close approximations

slide63
1-2

3

4-5

6-9

10-12

1st Sermon

2nd Sermon

3rd Sermon

4th Sermon

5th Sermon

There is profit in seeing God as the giver of all of the seasons of life

Instead of being fearful, enjoy life while it lasts because it is a gift from God

Man sees life as a struggle, but God gave life to be enjoyed

Because of the emptiness of this life, man ought to fear the Lord and follow His word

All of life is emptiness, but man ought to enjoy goodness because it is from God

remember the lord because
Remember the Lord because…
  • You aren’t getting any Younger.
  • God has designed you to the Empty without Him.
  • Now is the Time to Prepare for Eternity.
song of songs

SONG OF SONGS

The Love Song of the Scriptures

interpretations of the book
Interpretations of the Book
  • Allegorical Interpretation: Entire book is seen as an allegory of the Lord’s love for His people Israel.
  • Cultic Interpretation: Poems for use in marriage ritual.
  • Shepherd Interpretation: Views Solomon as the villain.
  • Typical Interpretation: Type of the church
  • Natural or Literal Interpretation
cast of characters
Cast of Characters
  • Solomon: Shelomoh “Peaceful”
  • Shulamith: Feminine of Shelomoh
slide69
Outline of the Book

Romance &

Honeymoon

(Chapters 1-4)

Happily ever

after

(Chapters 7-8)

Marital Problems

(Chapters 5-6)

lessons from the song of songs
Lessons from the Song of Songs
  • God is concerned with all of life
  • God is concerned with our sexuality
  • All of life reflects our relationship with God
  • The Scriptures contain love songs
  • We are a part of a sacred romance
the prophets
Old Testament

The Prophets

© John Stevenson, 2009

pentateuch
English Old Testament

Pentateuch

Historical Books

Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

Poetic Books

Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

Prophetic Books

Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

what is a prophet
What is a Prophet?
  • They functioned as Preachers
  • They functioned as Predictors
  • Prophet versus Priest
isaiah 1 4

Isaiah 1:4

Literally “Seed of Evil Ones.”

Alas, sinful nation,

People weighed down with iniquity,

Offspring of evildoers,

Sons who act corruptly!

They have abandoned the Lord,

They have despised the Holy One of Israel,

They have turned away from Him.

isaiah 1 10

Isaiah 1:10

Hear the word of the LORD,

You rulers of Sodom;

Give ear to the instruction of our God,

You people of Gomorrah.

isaiah 1 11

Isaiah 1:11

"What are your multiplied sacrifices to Me?” says the LORD.

"I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams,

And the fat of fed cattle.

And I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls, lambs, or goats.

isaiah 1 21

Isaiah 1:21

How the faithful city has become a harlot,

She who was full of justice!

Righteousness once lodged in her,

But now murderers.

isaiah 1 26 27

Isaiah 1:26-27

26 Then I will restore your judges as at the first,

And your counselors as at the beginning;

After that you will be called the city of righteousness, A faithful city."

27 Zion will be redeemed with justice

And her repentant ones with righteousness.

hosea 1 3
Overview of Hosea

Hosea 1-3

Hosea 4-13

Hosea 14

Hosea’s Message

Hosea’s Marriage

  • Gomer’s…
  • Unfaithfulness
  • Discipline
  • Restoration

The case of God’s covenant lawsuit is set forth, showing how Israel has been the unfaithful bride

Ultimate restoration

amos 3 1 2

Amos 3:1-2

Hear this word which the LORD has spoken against you, sons of Israel, against the entire family which He brought up from the land of Egypt, 2 you only have I chosen among all the families of the earth; therefore, I will punish you for all your iniquities."

micah 6 6 7

Micah 6:6-7

6 With what shall I come to the LORD

And bow myself before the God on high?

Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings,

With yearling calves?

7 Does the LORD take delight in thousands of rams,

In ten thousand rivers of oil?

Shall I present my first-born for my rebellious acts,

The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?

micah 6 8

Micah 6:8

He has told you, O man, what is good;

And what does the LORD require of you

But to do justice, to love kindness,

And to walk humbly with your God?

slide86
620 610 600 590 580 570 560

Amos

Jehoahaz

Jehoiachin

Josiah

Babylonian Captivity

Zedekiah

Jehoiakim

Jerusalem & Temple Destroyed

Joel?

Obadiah?

Jeremiah

Daniel

Habakkuk

Ezekiel

Fall of

Nineveh

jeremiah 31 31 32

Jeremiah 31:31-32

“Behold, days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the LORD.

jeremiah 31 33

Jeremiah 31:33

“But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days," declares the LORD, “I will put My law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

jeremiah 31 34

Jeremiah 31:34

And they shall not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the LORD, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

old covenant
New Covenant

Old Covenant

Jerusalem

Church

Let us go up to the house of the Lord

Go unto all the world and make disciples of the nations

the glory of the lord
The Glory of the Lord
  • Ezekiel sees the glory of the presence of the Lord within His temple (8:4).
  • The glory of God is seen at the doorway to the temple (9:3).
  • It next leaves the doorway and moves out to the Eastern Gate (10:18).
  • It moves completely out of the city of Jerusalem: And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood over the mountain which is east of the city (Ezekiel 11:23).
ezekiel s vision john s revelation
A Temple within the City

The New Jerusalem

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation
  • Ezekiel is taken in this vision to a very high mountain (40:2)
  • John is carried in the Spirit to a great and high mountain (21:10)
  • A man uses a rod to measure the dimensions of the temple (40:5-ff)
  • An angel measures the city with a rod (21:15-17)
  • The entire temple area is a perfect square (42:15-20)
  • The entire city is a perfect cube (21:16)
ezekiel s vision john s revelation93
A Temple within the City

The New Jerusalem

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation
  • The presence of the glory of the Lord enters the temple (43:3-4)
  • No need of sun or moon because the Lord illumines His city (22:5)
  • No foreigner is admitted into the temple (44:9)
  • Nothing unclean and no unbeliever is allowed into the city (21:8, 27)
  • A river of water flows out of the temple (47:1)
  • A river of the water of life comes from the throne of God (22:1)
ezekiel s vision john s revelation94
A Temple within the City

The New Jerusalem

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation
  • There are a total of 12 gates around the city (48:30-34)
  • There are 12 gates to the city (21:21)
  • The name of the city shall be: “The Lord is there” (48:35).
  • The throne of God shall be there (22:3)
ezekiel 43 4 5

Ezekiel 43:4-5

And the glory of the LORD came into the house by the way of the gate facing toward the east. 5 And the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court; and behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house.

slide96
Overview of Daniel

8:1

Written in the Third Person

Written in the First Person

Seven Historical Narratives

Four Prophetic Visions

1:1

Hebrew

Written in Aramaic

Written in Hebrew

Prologue

Prophetic History relating to the Gentiles

Prophetic History relating to the Jews

slide97
Seleucus
  • Antiochus IV
  • Hostage in Rome
  • Escape
  • Appointments in Judah

Ptolemy

antiochus epiphanes
Antiochus Epiphanes
  • Comes on the heels of Alexander’s generals
  • Magnifies itself against the Jews and against their God
  • He puts a stop to the sacrificial system and makes alterations to the Law
  • He attempts to overturn the truth of the Scriptures
  • He has power over the nation of Israel
antiochus epiphanes99
Antiochus Epiphanes
  • His sway over the Temple endures for approximately 3 and a half years (2300 mornings and evenings).
  • Then the holy place is ultimately properly restored
daniel 11 31

Daniel 11:31

And forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of desolation.

malachi 3 1

Malachi 3:1

"Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the LORD of hosts

malachi 4 2

Malachi 4:2

But for you who fear My name the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings; and you will go forth and skip about like calves from the stall.

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