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Genetics Terms. Target #8- I can define gene. Gene: a piece of DNA that provides a set of instruction to a cell to make a certain protein Each gene has a locus (location) on a chromosome. Target #9- I can define allele.

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target 8 i can define gene
Target #8- I can define gene
  • Gene: a piece of DNA that provides a set of instruction to a cell to make a certain protein
    • Each gene has a locus (location) on a chromosome
target 9 i can define allele
Target #9- I can define allele
  • Allele: any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
    • Cells have two alleles for each gene
target 10 i can differentiate between homozygous heterozygous
Target #10- I can differentiate between homozygous & heterozygous
  • Homozygous: two of the same allele at a specific locus
    • Ex: If B = tall in size, then a homozygous allele is BB
  • Heterozygous: two different alleles at a specific locus
    • Ex: if B = tall b= short, then a heterozygous allele is Bb
checking for understanding
Checking for understanding
  • PP
  • Gg
  • tt
  • QQ
  • Ww
  • Homozygous or heterozygous?
target 11 i can define genome
Target #11- I can define genome
  • Genome: all of an organism’s genetic material
    • Determines all traits of an individual
target 12 i can differentiate between genotype phenotype
Target #12- I can differentiate between genotype & phenotype
  • Genotype: the genetic make-up of a set of genes
    • Trait not seen outwardly
  • Phenotype: the physical characteristics displayed by the genes
    • What is expressed physically
target 13 i can differentiate between dominant and recessive alleles
Target #13- I can differentiate between dominant and recessive alleles
  • Dominant: an allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present
    • Ex: if B = tall and b = short, an organism with Bb or BB will be tall because the capital letter represents the dominant trait
  • Recessive: an allele that is only expressed when two copies are present
    • Ex: if B = tall and b= short, an organism will only be short with a bb because the lower case letters represent the recessive trait
checking for understanding1
Checking for Understanding
  • Dominant or recessive?
  • Q
  • H
  • n
  • y
  • A
checking for understanding combining concepts
Checking for understanding- combining concepts
  • Lets use the letter A for practice
  • Homozygous dominant
  • Homozygous recessive
  • Heterozygous
target 14 i can explain what a punnett square is used for
Target #14- I can explain what a punnett Square is used for
  • Punnett Square: a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
    • The axis represent the possible gamete genotypes of each parent
    • Show the possible genotypes of each offspring
    • By counting the number of squares of each offspring genotype, the ratio of genotypes can be determined
    • The ratio of phenotypes can be determined also
slide13
Target #15- I can determine the ratio of genotype and phenotype of offspring produced in a monohybrid cross
  • Monohybrid cross: a cross that examines one trait
  • Ex: Suppose you cross a pea plant that is homozygous dominant (PP) for purple flowers with a pea plant that is homozygous recessive for white flowers (pp)
  • F1 generation
    • Genotype: Pp
      • Heterozygous
    • Phenotype
      • Purple Flowers
target 15 cont
Target #15- cont.
  • A homozygous tall plant (TT) is crossed with a heterozygous plant (Tt).
    • What are the genotypes of the offspring? What is the ratio of genotypes?
    • What are the phenotypes of the offspring? What is the ratio of phenotypes?
  • A man with hitchhiker’s thumb (Hh) and his wife who also has hitchhiker’s thumb (Hh) are expecting a child.
    • What are the genotypes of the offspring? What is the ratio of genotypes?
    • What are the phenotypes of the offspring? What is the ratio of phenotypes?
    • What is the probability that the child will also have hitchhiker’s thumb?
target 16 i can determine the ratio of genotype and phenotype of offspring in a dihybrid cross
Target #16- I can determine the ratio of genotype and phenotype of offspring in a dihybrid cross
  • Dihybrid Cross: crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
    • The grid for dihybrid crosses is similar to monohybrid
    • Ex: Supposed you cross two plants with yellow, round peas that are heterozygous for both traits (YyRr)
  • F2 Generation
    • Genotypes?
    • Phenotypes?
target 16 cont
Target #16- cont.
  • A woman has the genotype eegg (no hitchhikers thumb and no widow’s peak. A man has the genotype EeGg (hitchhikers thumb and widow’s peak)
  • Diagram the Punnett square for the offspring between the man and the woman above. What are the genotypes and phenotypes
  • A man has the genotype BbDd (brown hair and brown eyes). His wife has blonde hair and blue eyes (bbdd).
  • What are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring? Draw a Punnett square