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By Gabriel Naspaan –TUDOF 27 th -28 th August 2012 Sasame Guest House. Lodwar, Turkana county. PowerPoint Presentation
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By Gabriel Naspaan –TUDOF 27 th -28 th August 2012 Sasame Guest House. Lodwar, Turkana county. Historical background. Geographical Position- Cross-border Conflict in North-West Kenya.

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By Gabriel Naspaan –TUDOF

27th-28th August 2012

Sasame Guest House. Lodwar, Turkana county.


Historical background

  • Geographical Position- Cross-border Conflict in North-West Kenya.
  • Turkana county is in Arid and Semi Arid lands (ASAL) is a rich store of natural wealth and biodiversity. Livestock, wildlife,forest,pasture,minerals and medicinal plants are all critical resources upon which the people of the region depend.
  • The natural resources related conflicts in ASAL is often viewed from scarcity perspective. However, a closer examination of the conflicts, for instance the cattle raids, shows that the issues is not about scarcity but has a lot to do with better management of existing resources in terms of access, distribution and benefit sharing and participation in shared decision making processes.
  • ASALs are rich in natural pasture and this has given it relative advantage in livestock and game production. The seasonality of pastures and water makes access to natural resources, a potential sources of conflicts

Cooperation & Conflicts over Access and Use of Natural resources

  • Frequent droughts that occasion migrations-
  • Historical rivalries between the ethnic communities
  • Disputes over territorial boundary claims
  • Traditional / customary practices
  • Proliferation of small arms and light weapons (show of power of the gun)
  • Weak state security and governance structures (especially the neighbouring countries)
  • State politics
  • Lack of clear land ownership policies

Current situation

  • Situation has not yet improved in terms of livestock rustling
  • Creating a conducive environment to a achieve sustainable pastoral livelihoods for Turkana, High levels of poverty, unexploited economic resources (Aloe-vera)
  • Those exploited don't benefit Turkana people (Oil,gold,gymisum,limestone)
  • The absence of comprehensive interventions targeting all aspect of Turkana marginalization and development-esp. Failure to stimulate viable economic projects.
  • Still proliferation of small arms along the Kenya-South Sudan & Ethiopia border on high rise
  • High Tension between Turkana, Toposa and Pokot
  • Still disarmament has not reached all parts and illegal arms are in plenty
  • High tension a long Kenya-Ethiopia border Dasanach killed 50 Turkana

Vulnerabilities and coping mechanisms

  • Affected groups
  • Livestock keepers, Youth herders, Kenya police reservist, Women and children, Traders, Businessmen, School - going children

How are they coping

  • Fast communication due to technological improvement
  • Establishment of peace committees
  • Establishment of Early warning indicators/ Re-grouping warriors ready to go and revenge
  • Traditional peace keeping meetings and forums
  • Engagements of reformed warriors in livelihoods programs
  • Three declarations to guide against wrongs (Lokiriama peace accord, Nadapal peace accord where the warring communities bury the hatchet)
  • Cross Boarder peace meetings
  • Establishments of vigilant groups


  • Actors/Stakeholders involved in
  • interventions
  • Provision administration
  • Adakar pace committees
  • Women peace crusade
  • Civil society organizations
  • International NGO’s
  • Specific Intervention strategies Employed and their outcomes
  • Formation of District peace committees
  • Enhance capacity building through trainings and exchange visits
  • Organize forums and meetings
  • Peaceful and harmonious disarmaments
  • Sharing available scarce resources and free movements without restrictions

Lessons learnt

  • Free information sharing among the target in absence of threats
  • Adherences to sanctions of fines as stipulated in the declarations
  • Others falling victims of circumstance after disarmament to their rivalry communities
  • Increase in banditry due to proliferations of small arms across the porous Borders
  • Displacements and high rise in IDPs
  • High poverty index among the pastoralist communities
  • Hatred and retaliation on high rate


  • Addressing the livelihoods issues and long-term development in Turkana and neighbouring areas in a sustainable manner
  • Infrastructure-roads ,water for production (livestock and agriculture)
  • Social services- health, education, safe drinking water
  • Common border development projects e.g. Market
  • Increasing the presence of the state by restoring law and order, and ability to protect people, their lives and property.
  • Greater harmonisation of governmental effort s to end cattle rustling with , within Kenya and neighbouring countries Uganda ,South Sudan and Ethiopia.

Why we have to ensure an end to cattle rustling.

  • The high human development cost of associated with the continuation of cattle rustling in Turkana.
  • Human cost-loss of life, maiming ,loss of property
  • Opportunities lost due to insecurity associated with armed rustling
  • Money would have used for development of projects instead is being spent on operations for ending rustling.
  • International level
  • Control stockpile
  • Monitoring and evaluation of productions
  • Adherence to the international policy standards
  • Member state to work toward effective new arm trade-Advocacy project AV & D
  • Work towards a new international instruments for control over brokers
  • EU to implement extra territorial legislation that enable them to control European brokers
  • Strengthen code of conducts to control all transit
  • Ensure criteria for licensed production and demand end user certificate and control over transfer
  • EU to work towards more coherent policies