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Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases. Dr. Wasantha Gunathunga Department of Community Medicine. H- nutr, imm. Levels of prevention. Primary Secondary Tertiary. Host. Age Sex Poor nutrition Habits HIV Immunity - BCG. Age Sex Poor nutrition Habits HIV Immunity - BCG.

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prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases
Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Dr. Wasantha Gunathunga

Department of Community Medicine

levels of prevention
H- nutr, immLevels of prevention
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
slide4
Host
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Poor nutrition
  • Habits
  • HIV
  • Immunity - BCG
slide5
Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Age :

Old age (eg. TB)

Infancy(eg.diarrhoea)

Reproductive age (HIV)

Sex:

Male

female

Host
slide6
Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Poor nutrition

Proper infant and child feeding

Nutrition during illness

Nutrition in special groups

Proper feeding of senior citizens

Host
slide7
Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Habits

Prevention of substance abuse

Prevention of risk sexual behaviour

Hygiene

Other

Host
slide8
Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Prevention of HIV will prevent many other infections

Immunity –by vaccinations

Host
agent
Agent
  • Prevent drug resistance -Tubercle bacillus
  • Not giving opportunity
  • Look for new forms – mutations, eg. SARS
environment
Environment
  • Manage overcrowding
  • Recognize occupational exposure
  • Improve domestic ventilation
  • public transport
  • Prevent antibiotic residues in food
  • Treat open cases
secondary prevention
secondary prevention
  • Surveillance
  • Screening
  • Complete treatment
  • Defaulter tracing
surveillance
Surveillance
  • Epidemiological surveillance is the continuous scrutiny of factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of diseases or other conditions of ill health. It includes systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and distribution of relevant data for action.
approaches of prevention
Approaches of prevention
  • Population approach
  • High risk approach
slide14
Control

Elimination

Eradication

disease control
Disease Control
  • The disease ‘agent is allowed to persist in the environment
  • The disease ceases to become a public health problem
  • A state of equilibrium
  • Disease control involves activities of primary prevention and secondary prevention
elimination
Elimination
  • Interruption of disease transmission in the community

e.g. Diphtheria

eradication
Eradication
  • Total removal of the infective agent thereby terminating disease transmission and the possibility of disease transmission

e.g. Small pox , ?polio

controlling the reservoir of infection
Controlling the reservoir of infection

The aim is to reduce the quantity of the agent available for dissemination

  • Early Diagnosis
  • Notification
  • Epidemiological investigation
  • Isolation
  • Treatment
  • Quarantine
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