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PowerPoint by Yu Hongyan Business School of Jilin U niversity PowerPoint Presentation
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PowerPoint by Yu Hongyan Business School of Jilin U niversity

PowerPoint by Yu Hongyan Business School of Jilin U niversity

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PowerPoint by Yu Hongyan Business School of Jilin U niversity

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  1. Chapter 13 Designing Pricing Strategies and Programs PowerPoint by Yu Hongyan Business School of Jilin University

  2. Objectives • 13.1 Setting the price • 13.2 Adapting the price • 13.3 Responding to price changes

  3. Price Has Many Names Rent Fare Tuition Interest Donation Fee Monthly Payment

  4. Price High MediumLow 1 Premium Value 2 High Value 3 Super Value High 4 Overcharging 5 Medium Value 6 Good-Value Product Quality Med 7 Rip-Off 骗取战略 8 False Economy 9 Economy Low Nine Price - Quality Strategies

  5. 12.1 Setting the Price 2. Determining demand 3. Estimating costs 4. Analyzing competitors’ costs, prices, and offers 5. Selecting a pricing method 6. Selecting final price 1. Selecting the pricing objective

  6. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Survival Maximize current profits Maximize market share Penetration strategy Market skimming Skimming strategy Product quality leaders Setting the Price

  7. In price skimming, initial price is • set high--at top of the demand • curve • Most sensible when: • Demand is inelastic • There is an “elite market” that is less price sensitive • Barriers to entry (patents, etc.) • Gradually working down the demand curve with lower priced marketing mixes over time. Price Skimming Price Sell at high price before reducing to next price level and repeat Initial Price Second Price Final Price Quantity

  8. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Understand factors that affect price sensitivity Estimate demand curves Understand price elasticity of demand Elasticity Inelasticty Setting the Price

  9. Conditions Under Which Demand is Less Elastic There are few or no substitutes Buyers think higher prices are justified InelasticDemandConditions Buyers slowly change buying habits & search for lower prices Buyers do not readily notice the higher price

  10. 博物馆门票的订价 你是一个大型艺术博物馆馆的馆长.你的财务经理告诉你,博物馆缺乏资金,并建议你考虑改变门票的价格以增加总收益.你将怎能样办?是提高门票价格?还是降低门票价格?

  11. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Types of costs and levels of production must be considered Accumulated production leads to cost reduction via the experience curve Differentiated marketing offers create different cost levels Setting the Price

  12. Types of Costs Fixed Costs (Overhead) Costs that don’t vary with sales or production levels. Executive Salaries Rent Variable Costs Costs that do vary directly with the level of production. Raw materials • Total Costs • Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given • Level of Production

  13. Setting the Price Figure 13-3: The Experience Curve

  14. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Firms must analyze the competition with respect to: Costs Prices Possible price reactions Pricing decisions are also influenced by quality of offering relative to competition Setting the Price

  15. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Price-setting begins with the three “C’s” Select method: Markup pricing Target-return pricing Perceived-value pricing Value pricing Going-rate pricing Auction-type pricing Group pricing Setting the Price

  16. The Three C’s Model for Price Setting Low Price No possible profit at this price High Price No possible demand at this price Costs Competitors’ prices and prices of substitutes Customers’ assessment of unique product features

  17. A:markup Markups 50.00 Wholesaler 30.00 Producer 24.00 Markup = 20.00 = 40% Markup = 6.00 = 20% Cost = 30.00 = 60% Markup = 2.40 = 10% Cost = 24.00 = 80% Cost = 21.60 = 90% Markup is usually stated as a percent of the selling price, not of the cost

  18. 成本加成定价法 计算公式 单位成本 定价= 1—预计利润 如果想要10%的利润, 卖价该订是多少呢? 11.11元 如果想要20%呢? 12.5元 如果想50%呢? 20元 单位成本10元

  19. 成本加成定价法被普遍应用的原因 • 卖方对成本比对需求能作出更多的肯定。把价格同成本结合在一起,卖方可以简化他们自己的定价任务;当需求变化时,他们无须频繁地调整价格。 • 当行业的所有企业都使用这种定价方法时,他们的价格就会趋趋于相似。因而价格竞争就会减少到最小。如果当他们在定价时注意需求的变化,那么价格竞争就不可能减少到最低。 • 许多人感到 成本加成定价法对买方和卖方来讲都比较公平。在买方的需求变得急迫时,卖方不利用这一有利条件谋求额外利益,而仍能获得公平的投资报酬

  20. B:Target Return Pricing Unit cost+desired return*invest capital Target-return price= Unit sale

  21. Total Revenue Profit Total Costs 4,000 Break-even point Price Loss 2,000 Fixed costs 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 0 1,000 2,000 Quantity Break-Even Pricing

  22. (万元) 总收入 120 100 总成本 80 60 40 固定成本 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 销售量(万台) B 目标利润定价法 • 假设烤面包机制造商在企业中投资是100万元,他要制定能获取20%利润的价格,即20万元,那么: 目标利润价格=单位成本+投资收益率*投资成本/销售量 =16+20%*100/50,000 =20元

  23. 目标利润定价法 单价=(固定成本+目标利润)÷预计销量 +单位变动成本 我本期希望有 5000万的利润, 该卖什么价呢?

  24. C:Perceived Value Pricing认知价值定价

  25. 认知价值定价法 我认为它值3万, 你愿意卖吗? 这是件宝物, 你认为它值多少? 发了! 净赚2万 底价1万元

  26. 认知价值定价法 越来越多的企业认识到,作为定价的关键,不是 卖方的成本,而是买主对价值的认知。 认知价值定价法与现代产品定位思想能很好地适 应起来。 认知价值定价法的关键是准确地确定市场对所提 供价值的认知。

  27. D:Value Pricing • Low price for a high-quality offering • Attract a large number of value-conscious customers • Everyday low price, EDLP • High-low price

  28. E:Going-Rate Pricing • Bases its price largely on competitors’ price • Follow the leader • Quite popular because the cost is difficult to measure

  29. 通行价格定价法 (Going-Rate Pricing) • 在通行价格定价法中,企业的价格主要基于竞争者的价格,很少注意自己的成本或需求。企业的价格可能与它主要竞争者的价格相同,也可能高于竞争者或低于竞争者。

  30. 通行价格定价策略 我们就 订23元吧 老板,A公司 的定价是20元 B 公司是25元

  31. 密封投标定价法 工程投标 10万元 10.5万元 11万元 9.9万元

  32. Pricing Procedure Select pricing objective Determine demand Estimate costs Analyze competition Select pricing method Select final price Requires consideration of additional factors: Psychological pricing Gain-and-risk-sharing pricing Influence of other marketing mix variables Company pricing policies Impact of price on other parties Setting the Price

  33. 心理定价法——零头定价Psychological pricing 标价精确给人以信赖感 低价值商品 9.97元 美国人喜欢奇数 9.94元 日本人喜欢偶数 9.98元 中国人喜欢8和6

  34. 心理定价法——整数定价Psychological pricing 满足顾客高消费心理,提高商品身价 价值高的商品 定价4008元 定价3997元

  35. 心理定价法——分档定价Psychological pricing 体现品质差别,顾客感到卖方认真负责 15.35元 16.7元 24.8元 29.9元 一档 二档 三档 四档

  36. 心理定价法——声望定价Psychological pricing 购买它可以显示消费者身份,高价格,高身份 168元 588元 3000元 9999元 名牌产品或名牌企业 高价值产品

  37. 心理定价法——习惯定价Psychological pricing 老板, 啤酒多少钱一扎 老规矩, 与原来一样 啤酒每扎 4.5元

  38. 心理定价法——招徕定价Psychological pricing 快来买啦! 大减价了 这么便宜? 原价:149元 现价:38元

  39. Discussion Scenario A new sports bar and grill sells various types of burgers, sandwiches, and appetizers. All appetizers, burgers, and sandwiches are priced at $4.00, while platters (which include a soft drink, fries and coleslaw) are priced at $6.00. Critique the pricing procedure used by this restaurant. What changes would your recommend?

  40. 12.2 Adapting the Price • Geographical Pricing • Price discounts and allowances • Promotional pricing • Discriminatory price • Product-mix price

  41. Geographical Pricing Barter Offset Compensation Deal Buyback Arrangement

  42. Price Discounts and Allowances Cash Discounts Functional Discounts Quantity Discounts Seasonal Discounts Trade-in Allowances Promotional Allowances

  43. Adapting the Price What type of discounts or allowances are being used by CardsDirect?

  44. Adapting the Price Loss-Leader Pricing Special Event Pricing Promotional Pricing Tactics Low Interest Financing CashRebates PsychologicalDiscounting Warranties and Service Contracts Longer Payment Terms

  45. 促销定价(1) 牺牲品定价 本店特价 基围虾 28元/斤 小海南海鲜大酒楼 有没有搞错, 老板赚什么钱

  46. 资料:牺牲品定价中的限量供应 楼上楼海鲜螃蟹 38元/斤 每座只供应半斤 长安奥托 2万元/辆 只有1辆且已被人订购 锦官新城电梯公寓 2480元/平方米 只有2套 春天百货服装 2折起 只有2种式样 购物优惠 半价买手机 只买给前50名 海信21寸彩电震撼价 998元/台 只买200台

  47. 促销定价(2) 特别事件定价 彩电 春节大优惠 原价 1300元 现价 1100元

  48. 促销定价(3) 现金回扣 特大优惠 本商店商品 一律买100元 送10元 华联商厦

  49. 促销定价(4) 我想要这房, 但我的钱不够 低息贷款 没关系, 我们可以给你 提供一定贷款

  50. 促销定价(5) 快来买啦! 大减价了 心理定价 大减价 大出血 原价:49元 现价:18元 原价 49