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History of Human Rights. Dr Maurice Mullard. Religion and Freedom of Expression. War of Religions France prosecution of Huguenots Decree of Nantes freedom of Religion Europe Thirty years War 1618 Treaty of Westphalia State to decide religion

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history of human rights

History of Human Rights

Dr Maurice Mullard

religion and freedom of expression
Religion and Freedom of Expression
  • War of Religions France prosecution of Huguenots Decree of Nantes freedom of Religion
  • Europe Thirty years War 1618
  • Treaty of Westphalia State to decide religion
  • See Locke on Tolerance and Milton on Freedom of Expression
role of revolution
Role of Revolution
  • American Revolution 1776 the Constitution and Bill of Rights
  • French Revolution 1789 and the terror of the Thermidor
  • Reinstate monarchy Revolution 1648 Paris Commune 1872
discrimination
Discrimination
  • Expulsion of Jews in Europe 1270 to 1380
  • England Act of Tolerance 1689 and Habeas Corpus 1689
  • Russia pogroms
  • Jewish Ghettoes as places of safety
  • Balfour Act 1917 Jewish State in Palestine
islam in europe
Islam in Europe
  • Crusades Islam conquest of Jerusalem 1180
  • Muslims in Spain 733 1610 forced conversions the Moriscos rebellion of 1568
  • Expulsions of Jews and Muslims Battle of Lepanto 1571 Islam Arts and Science in Europe
  • Problem of maledicta to bad mouth
industrial age
Industrial Age
  • Emergence of civil society new public spaces
  • Social protest suffrage social issues and trade unions
  • Factory Acts limits on working day child labour
  • Labour movements
american exceptionalism human rights
American Exceptionalism Human Rights
  • Freedom of Speech Freedom of Expression
  • Freedom of Expression Article 10 European Convention of Human Rights 28th May 2003 Declaration on Freedom of Communication on the Internet Council of Europe
  • Freedom of speech and freedom of the Press First Amendment Constitution of the United States
  • Examples Hate Speech Defamation of character libel Ku Klux Klan Europe hate speech Holocaust Racism
  • USA Experience Palme Raids McCarthy
  • Culture of Distrust
fragile humanity
FRAGILE HUMANITY
  • History of genocide some 36 genocides since 1890
  • In the name of progress Nazi Germany purify the race gypsies, disabled, Jews
  • Soviet Russia name of socialism 60 million dead
  • 1960 Rwanda Cambodia Bangladesh
where is morality
Where is morality
  • Stories of the concentration camp rape the capo decides who lives who dies
  • To do what is morally right?
  • Christian values did not stop the Holocaust
  • Islam and terrorism
  • Fragile Humanism
fragility of life
Fragility of Life
  • Soviet Experiment estimate 20 million dead from Lenin to Stalin utopian dream need of terror failure of French Revolution and Paris Commune
  • Nazi racial purity use of science estimate 20 million dead
  • China Culture Revolution 38 million dead
  • Pol Pot Cambodia
  • Genocide Rwanda Bosnia
utopian dreams
Utopian Dreams
  • Science idea and dreams of progress end of conflict and disharmony
  • Condorcet Comte humanity and science
  • Core of the Enlightenment
  • Market Liberalism a Utopian dream
  • Made possible with break up of Soviet Union triumph of capitalism
universal declaration of human rights
Universal declaration of human rights
  • Adopted by United Nations 10 December 1948 a milestone in the history of human rights acquisition of human dignity and worth’
  • Two covenants
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR
  • International Covenant on Economic Social and Social Rights Rights ICESCR)
  • Together formulate International Bill of Rights
context
Context
  • Aftermath of World War 2 – horrors of the holocaust Jewish cleansings the death camps, Gypsies
  • Fragile human history
  • Jewish and Muslim communities expulsions in Europe
  • Slavery
  • Migration
articles of the declaration
Articles of the declaration
  • Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood
  • Article 2 Everyone is entitled to rights without discrimination of race colour sex language religion
  • Rights are therefore inalienable
  • Article 3 right to life liberty and the security of the person
  • Articles 4 and 5 prohibit slavery
  • Article 13 – 15 freedom of movement and residence right to seek asylum
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Articles 7 – 11 rights against detention rights to a fair trial
  • Article 12 0- 16 rights to privacy
  • Article 18 -20 freedom of thought conscience, freedom of assembly and association
  • Article 21 secure democracy right of participation
  • Articles 22 – 27 standards of living health, right to work rest leisure education
  • Article 29 reciprocity duties to community
limits of udhr
Limits of UDHR
  • Lack of legal status not enforceable states cannot interfere in the context of other states signatory are voluntary
  • United nations Charter all states to publicize UDHR
  • Declaration now available in 300 languages – universal language of rights
  • Human Rights Commission at the UN role of the rapporteur
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