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Matter & Its Properties. Modern Chemistry Textbook: Ch. 1. Basic Building Blocks of Matter. What is matter?. Anything that takes up space and has mass Takes up space  volume Certain amount of stuff  mass How does one make stuff? Start with the ATOM!. What is chemistry?.

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matter its properties

Matter & Its Properties

Modern Chemistry Textbook: Ch. 1

what is matter
What is matter?
  • Anything that takes up space and has mass
    • Takes up space  volume
    • Certain amount of stuff  mass
  • How does one make stuff?
    • Start with the ATOM!
what is chemistry
What is chemistry?
  • The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
    • Composition
    • Structure
    • Properties
    • Energy changes
elements vs compounds
Elements vs. Compounds
  • Atom – smallest unit of an element that has the chemical identify of that element
  • Element – Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances
      • So only 1 kind of atom (a few or many)
  • Compound – Pure substance that can be broken into simpler, stable substances
      • must have 2 different kinds of atoms
states of matter
States of Matter

States of Matter

Elements & Compounds can be found in many different states of matter or phases

What’s the Difference between States of Matter Video

Substances only move from one phase to another by physical means.

what physical characteristics can you observe to determine a substances state of matter
What physical characteristics can you observe to determine a substances state of matter?

Indefinite volume

Indefinite shape

Definite volume

Definite shape

Definite volume

Indefinite shape

Shape

volume

physical vs chemical properties
Physical vs. Chemical Properties

Physical property – characteristic of a substance that can be observed/measured without altering substances identify

Physical change – change in which identify of substance is not altered

what if a substance s identity is altered
What if a substance’s identity is altered?

Chemical Property – ability to undergo changes that transforms substance into a new substance

Chemical change – change in which 1 or more substances are converted into different substances

chemical changes
Chemical Changes

yields

Reactants

substances that react

Products

substances that are formed

evidences of chemical change
Evidences of Chemical Change

Evolution of energy (heat/light)

Color change

Formation of a gas

Formation of precipitate

slide15

Energy is always involved in physical and in chemical changes

Law of Conservation of Energy: energy can be absorbed or released, but is never destroyed or created.

slide16

slide17

C

C

C

P

C

P

_______ 1 . Hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce a salt, water and heat.

_______ 2. A pellet of sodium is sliced in two.

_______ 3. Water is heated and changed to steam.

_______ 4. Iron rusts.

_______ 5. Evaporation

_______ 6. Milk sours.

_______ 7. Ice melting.

_______ 8. Wood rotting.

_______ 9. When placed in H2O, a sodium pellet catches on fire as H2 gas is liberated and sodium hydroxide forms.

_______ 10. Grass growing in a lawn.

_______ 11. A tire is inflated with air.

_______ 12. Food is digested in the stomach.

_______ 13. Water is absorbed by a paper towel.

_______ 14. Sugar dissolved in water.

P

C

C

P

C

P

P

P

classification of matter
Classification of Matter

Grouping matter to make identification easier

mixtures
Mixtures

Blend of 2 or more kinds of matter, each that retain its own identify and properties

  • Mixed together physically
  • Can be separated physically (no chemical rxn’s needed)
  • Homogeneous (solutions): uniform in composition
        • Salt – water solution
  • Heterogeneous: not uniform throughout
        • Clay-water mixture
slide20

Homogenous mixture

Heterogeneous mixture

heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Suspensions – particles in solvent so large that they settle out unless constantly stirred/agitated
  • Colloids – particles of intermediate size that stay dispersed throughout a mixture.
      • Often appears cloudy
      • Use Tyndall Effect to identify (shine light source through mixture and particles become visible in beam of light)
pure substances
Pure Substances

Fixed composition

  • Every sample of pure substance has exactly the same properties and composition
  • Ex: Water isalways 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass (determined from periodic table)
slide25

Element

Pure

Compound

Pure

Mixture

Heterogeneous

Mixture

Homogeneous

Pure

Element

Pure

Compound

Mixture

Heterogeneous

Mixture

Homogeneous

Mixture

Homogeneous

Pure

Element

what is the periodic table
What is the periodic table?

Why don’t elements and their symbols always look like they correspond to each other?

slide30

Groups

Periods

groups families
Groups & Families
  • The vertical columns of the periodic table are called groups, or families.
    • Each group contains elements with similar chemical properties.
  • The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called periods.
    • Physical and chemical properties change somewhat regularly across a period.
metals
Metals

elements to the left of the zigzag line

Properties of metals

  • Mostsolidsat room temperature
  • Malleable (hammered or rolled into thin sheets)
  • Ductile (drawn into a thin wire)
  • conduct electricity and heat well
metals1
Metals

Gold, copper, aluminum

nonmetals
Nonmetals

right of the zigzag line

an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

Properties of nonmetals

  • many are gases
  • solids are brittle
  • poor conductorsof heat and electricity
nonmetals1
Nonmetals

(a) carbon, (b) sulfur, (c) phosphorus (d) iodine

metalloids
Metalloids

surrounds zigzag line

an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals

Properties of metalloids

  • all metalloids are solidsat room temperature
  • semiconductorsof electricity
  • **Aluminum is not a metalloid – it’s a metal!
noble gases
Noble Gases

Elements in Group 18

Properties of Noble Gases

  • Generally unreactive (i.e. “inert”)
  • Gases at room temperature
  • Glow if electricity is passed through them