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Engineering Understanding of a Health Crisis. NSTA Charlotte Regional Conference November 8, 2013. Dr. Robin L. Cooper Associate Professor Neurobiology/Neurophysiology University of Kentucky, Lexington KY Diane H. Johnson

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engineering understanding of a health crisis

Engineering Understanding of a Health Crisis

NSTA Charlotte Regional Conference

November 8, 2013

slide2

Dr. Robin L. Cooper

    • Associate Professor Neurobiology/Neurophysiology University of Kentucky, Lexington KY
  • Diane H. Johnson
    • Assistant Director, P12 Math & Science Outreach Unit of PIMSER at the University of Kentucky
  • Susan W. Mayo
    • Regional Teacher Partner, P12 Math & Science Outreach Unit of PIMSER at the University of Kentucky
session goals
Session Goals
  • Engineer a tabletop model for use at a "health fair" to help educate students and the public about stressors on the circulatory system.
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • How can the use of models help us engineer solutions to problems involving the human body?
  • What do we need to understand so that we can design and evaluate a model of the CVS that demonstrates the healthy state vs. the diseased state?
  • In what ways can understanding math and science concepts and practices help us solve problems involving the human body?
slide6

Performance Expectation

HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to neural stimuli. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interactions and functions at the molecular or chemical reaction level.]

ets1 a defining and delimiting an engineering problem
ETS1.A: DEFINING AND DELIMITING AN ENGINEERING PROBLEM

The engineering design process begins with

  • Identification of a problem to solve
  • Specification of clear goals, or criteria for final product or system

Engineering must contend with a variety of limitations or constraints

Framework for K-12 Science Education Page 204

self reported obesity among u s adults in 2012
Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults in 2012
  • No state had a prevalence of obesity less than 20%.
  • Nine states and the District of Columbia had a prevalence between 20–<25%.
  • Thirteen states (Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia) had a prevalence equal to or greater than 30%.

http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

slide11

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 2000, 2010

(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person)

2000

1990

2010

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

the problem

Pg. 1-3

The Problem
  • Read “Cindy’s Story: The Conceptual Problem”
  • In a quick write, record your first reaction to the task problem. Add some notes of things you know about this issue.
  • Share your quick write with a table partner
    • Note similarities and differences in responses
project goal
Project Goal

Pg. 5-6

  • Design a model that demonstrates the effect(s) of disease on the normal functioning of the Cardiovascular System.
  • Present the model at a health fair.
evaluation of model and presentation based on
Evaluation of model and presentation based on:
  • Works consistently
  • Limitations are noted
  • Math and science concepts are presented in relation to the problem
  • Accurately represents the structure and the functioning of the system
    • Heart
    • Valves
    • Blood vessels
  • Relative scale of components used where appropriate
    • Example: arteries, veins, capillaries
  • Accurately represents the distinction between the healthy vs. diseased states
ets1 b developing possible solutions
ETS1.B: DEVELOPING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

What is the process for developing potential design solutions?

The creative process of developing a new design to

solve a problem is a central element of engineering

  • Open-ended generation of ideas
  • Specification of solutions that meet criteria and constraints
  • Communicated through various representations, including models
  • Data from models and experiments can be analyzed to make decisions about a design.

Framework for K-12 Science Education Pages 206-7

resources on dr cooper s web site
Resources on Dr. Cooper’s web site

http://web.as.uky.edu/Biology/faculty/cooper/STEM%20NSTA%20Charlotte/NSTA-STEM-2013.htm

  • Videos
  • Animations
  • Papers
  • Journal articles
  • Materials list
examples of resources
Examples of Resources
  • Overview ppt
  • Some ppts that teachers can use: part 1, part 2, part 3
  • Text files (MS word): The conceptual problem, Engineering design, parts for experiments, on line information, Sample middle school unit, Arteriosclerosis lab, AAAS Science link on heart, YOUTUBE links on demos, The circulatory role, lipid tests , Secondary New generation Stds,
  • Associated PDFs & other content :
  • Windkessel paper, Blood doping, Altitude 1, Altitude 2, Lipid blood tests,ankle-brachial index1, ankle-brachial index2, ankle-brachial index3, ankle-brachial index4,Guided inquiry by Colburn
  • Hemodynamics for Medical , Smith's model for undergraduates
  • Beamer,Chpt 7 alternat integrated Framework, Baldock Chanson 2006 fluid flow, Campbell biology fluid flow, Chapter 13 outline, Fluid flow and motion Exp9 , fluid flow chapter 8, guide to lowering BP, Maps of obesity, Microvascular dysfunction obsesity, Physics & human, Static Vs Pulse press,
slide19

Tubes

Pump

slide20

Tubes

Pump

slide21

Higher level

Lower level

Constriction

or a clog

Tubes

Pump

Bernoulli's principal

slide22

Higher level

Walls have build up

Produces

turbulent flow

Lower level

Tubes

Pump

Eddies and turbulence breaks up the stream.

Slows down flow and can build up back pressure

summary frames
Summary Frames
  • Cause and Effect Example 1

Because of___, ___ (happens/occurs). __ caused __. Therefore _____. Finally, due to ___, ___. This explains why ___.

  • Cause and Effect Example 2

The cause of ___is not easy to define. Some people think the cause is ___. Others believe the main cause is __. Understanding the cause of __ is important because __.

  • Cause and Effect Example 3

The effects of ___ are significant because ___. One effect of ____ is ___. Another result is ___. Because of these outcomes, it important that _____.

develop ideas for design
Develop ideas for design
  • Ideas for design of models of CVS which can illustrate the harmful effects of disease on the system
  • Work with your group
    • Explore the research & available materials
    • Think about how to use materials to model your assigned disease
    • Develop/build your model
    • Be prepared to share with other groups
choose
Choose
  • A CVS model design to plan and test
  • Plan to present at the “”Community Health Fair
create
Create
  • A model of the CVS based on your plan
ets1 c optimizing the design solution
ETS1.C: OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN SOLUTION

How can the various proposed design solutions be compared and improved?

Multiple solutions to an engineering design problem are always possible; determining what constitutes “best” requires judgments

  • Optimization requires making trade-offs among competing criteria
  • Judgments are based on the situation and the perceived needs of the end-user of the product or system
  • Different designs, each optimized for different conditions, are often needed

Framework for K-12 Science Education Pgs. 208-209

test and evaluate
Test and Evaluate
  • The performance of the CVS model to illustrate the difference in the healthy functioning of the system vs. the system in the disease state.
possible summary frame
Possible Summary Frame

Problem/Solution - Example 2

The problem of __ really boils down to the issue of __. In the past, the common solution was to __. However, this was only effective in terms of __. There are now other solutions that might work. One option would be to __. This would __.

Another option would be to __. This is ideal because __. These possible solutions are worth considering if we are to solve this issue in the near future.

communicate
Communicate
  • About your CVS model design
    • Why you thought it would work and what happened?
slide37

Results! Why, man, I have gotten a lot results. I know several things that won’t work.

-Thomas Edison, 1890

redesign retest
Redesign & Retest
  • CVS model to more effectively meet the criteria, based on research and multiple first-round model designs
what science and engineering practices
What Science and Engineering Practices?
  • Identify the scientific and engineering practices that were used.
slide40

Scientific and Engineering Practices

Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics and computational thinking

Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

what crosscutting concepts
What Crosscutting Concepts?
  • Identify the crosscutting concepts that were used.
crosscutting concepts

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation

Scale, proportion, and quantity

Systems and system models

Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation

Structure and function

Stability and change

networking session
Networking Session
  • How might integrating engineering design overtly and purposefully across the science curriculum K-12 help increase student understanding of science and motivation to learn science?
session goals1
Session Goals
  • Engineer a tabletop model for use at a "health fair" to help educate students and the public about stressors on the circulatory system.
youtube links
YouTube Links

1st fluid flow : Simulated “Ankle-Brachial index” (ABI)

http://youtu.be/XVr-MT3k0mw

2nd fluid flow: Laminar and turbulent flow

http://youtu.be/KHxOwnh4YVo

3rd fluid flow: Viscosity

http://youtu.be/ZOCNVUa0f_g

4th fluid flow: Windkessel effect

http://youtu.be/UJt3-lGnhVU

With student narration:

http://youtu.be/6iroS6arqT8

http://youtu.be/enZunzh7AnU

contact information
Contact Information
  • Diane H. Johnson
    • Diane.johnson@uky.edu
  • Susan W. Mayo
    • Susan.mayo1961@att.net
  • http://web.as.uky.edu/Biology/faculty/cooper/STEM%20NSTA%20Charlotte/NSTA-STEM-2013.htm