Transition to 6-person crew ASE conference, Praha Oct 8, 2009 Andreas Schön, ESA All dates used in this presentation are examples only, they do not necessarily represent the mostup to date ISS planning!
What changes ? • Onboard resources needs • Onboard crew support infrastructure • Number of crew transportation and ISS re-supply vehicles needed • Onboard operations • Ground operations • Crew training concept
Onboard resource needs • Crew re-supply:- food- water- crew support items- Oxygen / Nitrogen • Resources for system operations and utilization:- water- High pressure gas for P/L and EVA
Onboard crew support infrastructure • Electrical power generation • Environmental control and life support systemincluding:- Oxygen generation- Water recovery and recycling • Sleeping compartment • Hygiene • Physical exercise devices
Crew transportation & re-supply vehicles • Four Soyuz spacecrafts per year- from exp 22 onwards crew exchange exclusively with Soyuz • Mixed fleet of re-supply vehicles (Progress, Shuttle (until 2010), HTV, ATV, new US cargo vehicles) • Soyuz, Progress and ATV docking to the ROS:- currently three Russian docking ports available- four Russian docking ports from end of 2009 onwards • Station re-boost & DAM capability • After shuttle retirement the download capacity will be extremely limited -> change in the ISS maintenance concept
Onboard operations concept change • Transfer to segmented operations:- lessons learned from early ISS operations- size and complexity of the station- limit overall time crew will spend in training • Every crewmember will be at least “User” for all ISS systems • Every crewmember will be trained as “Operator” for emergency response • Protect for return to 3-person crew:- critical skill set with each Soyuz crew (SSRMS, CMO, vehicle docking) • EVA capabilities- cross-training under discussion • Crew H/O may be performed as direct or in-direct H/O
Direct versus in-direct handover a) Direct Handover Exp 31 Exp 33 Exp 32 • leaving and arriving crews overlap on-board for ~ 10 days • 3 Soyuz docked to ISS, 9 crewmembers onboard during H/O • Full skill set available on ISS b) In-direct Handover Exp 31 Exp 33 Exp 32 • Leaving crew will depart from ISS before new crew has arrived • For a period of ~ 2 – 3 weeks a three person crew will be onboard ISS • During three person period a reduced skill set will be available onboard
Crew training concept • Adaptation to segmented ops • Change to a new b/u concept to:- reduce overall number of astronauts and cosmonauts in training, since the training facilities and teams can not support a doubling of the number of trainee’s- reduce the time each individual crewmember has to spent in training
Exp 31 b/u launches Continue training for prime crew or collateral duties Continue training for later inc or …… “Classical b/u concept” versus SFTL (I) a) Classical b/u concept Exp 31 Exp 31 b/u • every prime crewmember has a 1:1 b/u which goes through the training together with the prime • every crewmember has to go over the training flow twice; once as a b/u and a second time as a prime (overall training duration: ~ 4.5 years) • b/u and prime assignment may be years apart • an b/u assignment does not necessarily lead to a prime assignment
“Classical b/u concept” versus SFTL (II) b) SFTL = Single-flow-to-launch concept Exp 33 launches as accelerated crew in place of exp 31 Exp 31 Exp 33 6 months = one inc • individual 1:1 b/u’s don’t exist anymore • each Soyuz crew is backed up by another Soyuz crew, which is nominally scheduled to launch six months later • A crews b/u A crews & B crews b/u B crews • every crewmember has to go over the SFTL training flow only once (training duration less than 2.5 years) • an assignment to training will nominally lead to launch to ISS • Remarks: • Both concepts allow the swap-out of individual crewmembers as well as whole crews. • The ISS training is currently in transition to SFTL. This process has been nearly finished for the USOS crewmembers, but is still ongoing for the Russian crewmembers.
SFTL Training flows a) Nominal SFTL flow Exp 26assignment Exp 24launch Exp 26launch On-orbit H/O ~ 2 year period 6 months period b) Accelerated launch SFTL flow Exp 26assignment Exp 26 launches inplace of exp 24 ~ 2 year period On-orbit H/O
Nominal SFTL flow - content Exp 26assignment Exp 24launch Exp 26launch On-orbit H/O ~ 2 year period 6 months period • Proficiency & refresher: • EVA maintenance run • robo proficiency • EMER proficiency • Soyuz proficiency • Visiting vehicles prof. • System refresher • Exp 26 inc spec tasks: • Late P/Ls • Late EVAs • BDC • Launch prep activities: • PAO events • BDC • Mission briefings • Baikonur process • Generic H/OFunctional H/O • OJT • Normal OBTs: • robo prof. • EMER drills • R&D • Critical generic task: • Soyuz training • ISS core systems User & Operator tasks • ISS Emergency tasks • ORLAN & EMU EVA • SSRMS • Language (thru intermediate high) • Exp 24 inc spec content required for exp 26(i.e. exp 24 inc spec high value tasks): • Exp 24 P/Ls • inc spec EVA task • HTV & HTV robo • US re-supply vehicles (Sp-X, Dragon) • ATV • subset of launch prep activities • Additional generic task: • Generic P/L training • ISS core systems Specialist tasks • Language (thru intermediate high+) • Exp 26 inc spec content: • Exp 26 P/Ls • inc spec EVA task • robo 1stPRIORIT Y
Accelerated Launch SFTL flow - content Exp 26 launches inplace of exp 24 Exp 26assignment On-orbit H/O ~ 2 year period • Generic H/OFunctional H/O • OJT • Normal OBTs: • robo prof. • EMER drills • R&D • Remediation OBTs • Critical generic task: • Soyuz training • ISS core systems User & Operator tasks • ISS Emergency tasks • ORLAN & EMU EVA • SSRMS • Language (thru intermediate high) • Exp 24 inc spec content required for exp 26(i.e. exp 24 inc spec high value tasks): • Exp 24 P/Ls • inc spec EVA task • HTV & HTV robo • US re-supply vehicles (Sp-X, Dragon) • ATV • subset of launch prep activities • Launch prep activities: • PAO events • BDC • Mission briefings • Baikonur process • Additional generic task: • Generic P/L training • ISS core systems Specialist tasks • Language (thru intermediate high+) 1stPRIORITY