Preparation in responding to natural disasters experiences of an nppo and an rppo
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Preparation in responding to natural disasters Experiences of an NPPO and an RPPO. By: Jimmy Ruiz Plant Health Programme Officer OIRSA. Francisco Gutierrez, Technical Director Plant Health Services Belize Agricultural Health Authority.

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Preparation in responding to natural disasters experiences of an nppo and an rppo
Preparation in responding to natural disastersExperiences of an NPPO and an RPPO

By: Jimmy Ruiz

Plant Health Programme Officer


Francisco Gutierrez,

Technical Director

Plant Health Services

Belize Agricultural Health Authority

Hurricanes propensity to Natural Disasters

Flooding propensity to Natural Disasters

Earthquakes propensity to Natural Disasters

Volcanic eruptions
Volcanic eruptions propensity to Natural Disasters

Threats posed by natural disasters to nppos
Threats posed by natural disasters to NPPOs propensity to Natural Disasters

  • NPPO infrastructure (labs, offices) and equipment (vehicles, tools, computers) may be seriously compromised.

  • Personnel may be directly affected (loss of property and life).

  • Road infrastructure (highways, rails, ports, bridges) may be destroyed limiting NPPOs ability to reach areas of work or to perform its work.

  • Quarantine stations may be destroyed or compromised.

Associated risks in the aftermath
Associated risks in the aftermath propensity to Natural Disasters

  • Emergence of pests that may change hosts and explode in populations.

  • Introduction of quarantine pests by this pathway (Steneotarsonemusspinki, toxopteracitricida)

  • Extreme weather creates conditions for pest outbreaks due to stress factors and direct damage.

Risks cont
Risks... Cont.

  • Dissemination of certain pests beyond their natural or controlled ranges.

    - may compromise pest free areas.

  • Imported consignments under quarantine may be exposed.

  • Donated goods (consumption and plants for planting, other articles) may pose the risk of introducing quarantine pests.

Donations Risks... Cont.

  • Emergency situations create vulnerability in aspects of food security.

  • Governments are only interested in expediting the process of donations, especially food, shelter, clothing – pressure NPPOs to “soften” requirements.

  • Many of the donated products/articles may be efficient pathways for pest introduction.

Pathways Risks... Cont.

  • Grains and pulses

  • Fruits and vegetables

  • Seeds

  • Semi processed products

  • Construction material (wooden and aggregates)

  • Wood packaging material

  • Used clothing/foot wear

  • Machinery/farm implements

Experience of Belize in preparing for natural emergencies Risks... Cont.Phytosanitary considerations,Procedural Issues and support by our RPPO

Pre emergency preparation
Pre-emergency preparation Risks... Cont.

  • Activation of the institutional emergency plan

  • Objective!!! - protect infrastructure, equipment and health of staff

Action points in the emergency plan
Action points in the emergency plan Risks... Cont.

  • Protection of labs and especially sensitive equipment.

  • Securing points of entry

  • Documentation management including databases

  • Facilities (offices)

  • Vehicles fully fuelled

  • Homes of staff secured by staff

  • Official Shelters identified and staff and families relocated

National system for emergency management1
National system for emergency Risks...

Meeting of the National Emergency Management Organization

Ministry of



Ministry of Agriculture/




Post event activities
Post-event activities Risks... Cont.

Visit to agriculture areas affected.

Evaluation of damage to infrastructure/equipment

Meeting of the National Emergency Management Organization

Evaluation of points of entry and operationalization

Infrastructure repairs



Determine additional surveillance programmes

Other donation Oriented Orgs.

Red Cross

Implementation of surveillance programmes

Determine donation amounts and sources

Import authorization process donations
Import authorization process- donations Risks... Cont.


Determines Levels and source, type, quantities of donations

Cross-checks import requirements for these products/sources

Informs those concerned on prohibitions and conditions

Conducts quick risk assessments for new sources/products

Determine measures

Intensifies inspections (100 % of consignments)

Authorization of importation

Rppo international regional organization for agricultural health oirsa
RPPO Risks... Cont.International Regional Organization for Agricultural Health (OIRSA)

  • OIRSA was created in 1953 as a cooperation initiative between Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

  • OIRSA functions as a regional plant health, animal health, and food safety organization.

  • It provides technical support to its 9 member countries,( C.A., Mexico, Belize, Panama, D.R.)

Rppo support
RPPO support Risks... Cont.

  • Technical- provision of technical personnel upon request if the emergency entails phytosanitary issues.

  • Financial- To support NPPO activities associated to dealing with the emergency.

Funding Risks... Cont.

  • It generates funds by providing certain services at points of entry, from projects and from membership contributions.

  • The organization has focused a lot of resources on standards and capacity development.

  • One of the unique supporting mechanisms of the organization was the creation of an emergency fund system to support its members in cases of phytosanitary emergencies as well as natural disasters.

  • The emergency fund (housed at OIRSA Headquarters) has two levels:

    • National

    • Regional

  • Any country can access its own national emergency funds.

  • A country can access the regional funds (greater amounts) through an approval system.

  • Ministers/Secretaries of Agriculture of member countries can also declare regional emergencies and designate funds/ direct work programmes in this regard.

Emergency reserve funds
Emergency Member Countries Reserve Funds

  • These are funds to support initial actions for the control of an agricultural health emergency which due to its urgent character constitutes a threat to the agricultural sector. This may be of a national and even a regional nature.

  • These funds are utilized in the initial execution of the emergency plans (no more than six months) while other funds from government or international sources are sourced.

  • These funds are destined mainly to support NPPO/min of agriculture activities associated to the emergency.

Any one of the following criteria constitutes and agricultural emergency
Any one of the following criteria constitutes and agricultural emergency!!!

  • A Quarantine plant pest or a quarantine animal disease is detected.

  • An emergent pest of potential impact of great magnitude.

  • There is a dramatic increase of an established plant pest or animal disease in the region.

  • There is sufficient evidence or as demonstrated through a risk analysis that there is an eminent possibility of the introduction of a quarantine plant pest or animal disease.

Cont criteria for funds
Cont... Criteria for funds

  • The occurrence of a plant pest or animal disease may have great economic repercussions due to its impact on agricultural production

  • The occurrence of a disease may have serious negative repercussions on human health.

  • A natural event such as flooding, hurricanes, droughts, earthquakes or others that may compromise agricultural production and have an economic impact of great magnitude.

Procedures for the use of national and regional emergency funds
Procedures for the use of national and regional emergency funds

  • After establishing that an emergency situation is present, the requesting country or countries present general provisions on how the emergency funds will be utilized, but with a budget limited to six months of activities.

  • The request is submitted by a Minister or Secretary of Agriculture directly to the Executive Director of OIRSA headquarters. Headquarters verifies the amounts from the national funds and makes these available

Cont procedures
Cont.... procedures

  • When the request is of a regional nature, the process is similar but funds come from the regional fund

  • This requires approval from the presidency of CIRSA (Council of Ministers of Agriculture). Decisions are expedited due to the nature of the request.

Agricultural health emergencies and natural disasters financially supported from 2002 2013

Agricultural Health emergencies and natural disasters Cont.... proceduresfinancially supported from 2002-2013

Thank you gracias
Thank you Cont.... proceduresGracias