Transformational leadership, goal difficulty, and job design: Independent and interactive effects on employee outcomes . Article Presentation Course 614 Jason T. Munro. 1. Describe what the study is about?. A total of 209 leader-follower dyads participated in this field study.
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Jason T. Munro
A total of 209 leader-follower dyads participated in this field study.
Twelve different organizations were represented in the study. The organizations ranged from manufacturing to health care.
The study was designed to examine moderating effects of followers results related to performance, affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior when transformational leadership is being substituted.
H1: An enriched job will substitute for transformational leader behavior in its positive relationship to the follower outcomes of performance, affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors such that transformational leader behavior’s positive effect will be increasingly reduced (negatively moderated) and eventually replaced by increasing levels of job enrichment. At low levels of job enrichment, transformational leader behavior will exhibit significant positive relationships with follower outcomes, while at high levels of job enrichment, transformational leader behavior will not exhibit a significant relationship.
H2: Goal difficulty will enhance (positively moderate) the relationship between the transformational leader behavior and the follower outcomes of performance and affective organizational commitment such that transformational leader behavior’s positive relationships to the outcomes will become increasingly greater at higher levels of goal difficulty. The positive effect size of leader behavior on outcomes will be greater at higher levels of goal difficulty.
H3: Goal difficulty will neutralize (negatively moderate) the relationships between the transformational leadership behavior and organizational citizenship behavior such that at increasing levels of goal difficulty, transformational leader behavior’s positive effect on citizenship behavior will decrease. The positive effect size will be less at greater levels of goal difficulty.
The sample consisted of 12 different organizations ranging from manufacturing, government agencies, health care, production, accounting and personnel.
Front-line supervisors to presidents.
Participants were selected based on formal job title.
100 of 140 managers completed the survey (71% response rate)
Manager provided 10 subordinates and 3 were randomly selected (I would only provide people that are part of the in group)
420 subordinates were identified, 209 participated (50% response rate)
Field Study - Survey questionnaire:
One hundred and forty managers completed a questionnaire with a 71% response rate.
The managers were required to provide a list of 10 subordinates and the researcher randomly selected 3,
420 subordinates were selected. A total of 209 dyads participated in the study.
Packets were sent to managers with survey questionnaires to evaluate participants.
The evaluation form(s) included questions about subordinates performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and demographics.
Detail written instructions were provided along with a return envelop with postage.
The surveys were coded to match managers to subordinates responses.
Moderated regression analyses
Moderator models are often used to examine when an independent variable influences a dependent variable. That is, moderated models are used to identify factors that change the relationship between independent and dependent variables
Created by Dr Simon Moss on 25/02/2010
Moderating effects of job enrichment – H1
Proposed that job enrichment would substitute for transformational leader behavior relationships with followers performance, affective organizational commitment, and OCB.
Predicted a positive effect for transformational leadership behavior and job enrichment scores and a negative sign on interaction (Podsakoff et al., 1996)
Relationship for affective commitment (B leader =.31, p<.001; B job enrich =.34, p<.001; B interaction = -.12, p<.05).
Significant positive relationship for transformational leadership and job enrichment
Significant negative sign for interaction coefficient.
Standard deviation (low =-1 mean) (high = +1 mean)
Simple slope analysis: Results
Affective commitment on job enrichment and transformational leadership yield a less steep, but still significant simple slope at high levels (one STD)
Job enrichment (B = .19, p<.05) a steeper positive slope at low levels (-one STD)
Jog enrichment (B = .42, p<.001)
Job enrichment did not fully substitute for transformational leader behavior in its effects on affective commitment until a level greater than 1 standard deviation.
Moderating effects of goal difficulty – H2
Proposed that goal difficulty would enhance the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and both performance and affective organizational commitment.
Bata values for performance (B leader =.25, p<.001; B interaction = .13, p<.05 )
Bata values for affective commitment (B leader=.43, p<.001; B interaction = .13, p<.05)
Proposed that goal difficulty would neutralize the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and OCB.
Significant results were not found
An enriched job substitute for transformational leadership behavior on affective organizational commitment when using criteria from Howell et al. (1986) and Podsakoff et al. (1996).
Substitution for transformational leadership occurs only at high levels of job enrichment (may provide an alternative to the other)
Both is needed (transformational leader and enriched job) to encourage in-role and extra job role behaviors (however, needs further examination)
Other researchers presented concerns about common source variance in substitutes for leadership research.
Post hoc analyses was conducted to examine any potential impact of contingent rewards. When contingent reward was added it decreased the R2 and no increase in adjusted R2.
There are several factors that contribute to transformational leaders, such as “interactive relationship among mutually interdependent people operating in complex organizational environments.” Whittington, Goodwin & Murray (2004).