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CISC181 Introduction to Computer Science Dr. McCoy Lecture 1 February 8, 2005. What is this course about?. Basic principles of computer science Programming Course using C++ What does good programming involve? Software engineering, structured programming, object oriented design Planning

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CISC181 Introduction to Computer Science Dr. McCoy Lecture 1 February 8, 2005


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    1. CISC181 Introduction to Computer ScienceDr. McCoyLecture 1February 8, 2005

    2. What is this course about? • Basic principles of computer science • Programming Course using C++ • What does good programming involve? • Software engineering, structured programming, object oriented design • Planning • Writing clear, well documented, and well formatted code • Clear modularity – clear sections of code doing their job

    3. What is this course about (cont.)? • Understanding various tools (data structures, and computer programs) for doing the job

    4. Course Syllabus • This course has a web page http://www.cis.udel.edu/~mccoy/courses/cisc181.05s • First, let’s take a look at the syllabus http://www.cis.udel.edu/~mccoy/courses/cisc181.05s/syllabus.html

    5. 1.2 What is a Computer? • Computer • Device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions • Computer programs • Sets of instructions that control computer’s processing of data • Hardware • Various devices comprising computer • Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CD-ROM, processing units, … • Software • Programs that run on computer

    6. 1.3 Computer Organization • Six logical units of computer • Input unit • “Receiving” section • Obtains information from input devices • Keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, networks, … • Output unit • “Shipping” section • Takes information processed by computer • Places information on output devices • Screen, printer, networks, … • Information used to control other devices

    7. 1.3 Computer Organization • Six logical units of computer • Memory unit • Rapid access, relatively low capacity “warehouse” section • Retains information from input unit • Immediately available for processing • Retains processed information • Until placed on output devices • Memory, primary memory • Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) • “Manufacturing” section • Performs arithmetic calculations and logic decisions

    8. 1.3 Computer Organization • Six logical units of computer • Central processing unit (CPU) • “Administrative” section • Supervises and coordinates other sections of computer • Secondary storage unit • Long-term, high-capacity “warehouse” section • Storage • Inactive programs or data • Secondary storage devices • Disks • Longer to access than primary memory • Less expensive per unit than primary memory

    9. Computer Programming Languages • Programmers write programs/instructions in various programming languages – some easier for the computer to understand and some easier for the programmer to understand. • Machine languages • Assembly languages • High-level languages

    10. 1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages • Three types of computer languages • Machine language • Only language computer directly understands • “Natural language” of computer • Defined by hardware design • Machine-dependent • Generally consist of strings of numbers • Ultimately 0s and 1s • Instruct computers to perform elementary operations • One at a time • Cumbersome for humans • Example: +1300042774+1400593419+1200274027

    11. 1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages • Three types of computer languages • Assembly language • English-like abbreviations representing elementary computer operations • Clearer to humans • Incomprehensible to computers • Translator programs (assemblers) • Convert to machine language • Example: LOAD BASEPAYADD OVERPAYSTORE GROSSPAY

    12. 1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages • Three types of computer languages • High-level languages • Similar to everyday English, use common mathematical notations • Single statements accomplish substantial tasks • Assembly language requires many instructions to accomplish simple tasks • Translator programs (compilers) • Convert to machine language • Interpreter programs • Directly execute high-level language programs • Example: grossPay = basePay + overTimePay

    13. Background on C++ • One of the most popular software development languages • Superset of the C language (with object oriented features) • Be Careful! • Does not enforce structured style (e.g., array out of bounds not checked) • Gives a lot of control to the programmer (enough rope to…) • Programmer must be responsible for enforcing discipline

    14. 1.14 Basics of a Typical C++ Environment • C++ systems • Program-development environment • Language • C++ Standard Library

    15. Program is created in the editor and stored on disk. Preprocessor program processes the code. Compiler creates object code and stores it on disk. Compiler Linker links the object code with the libraries, creates a.out and stores it on disk Primary Memory Loader Loader puts program in memory. Primary Memory CPU takes each instruction and executes it, possibly storing new data values as the program executes. Preprocessor Linker Editor Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.14 Basics of a Typical C++ Environment • Phases of C++ Programs: • Edit • Preprocess • Compile • Link • Load • Execute

    16. 1.20 Introduction to C++ Programming • C++ language • Facilitates structured and disciplined approach to computer program design • Following several examples • Illustrate many important features of C++ • Each analyzed one statement at a time • Structured programming • Object-oriented programming

    17. 1.21 A Simple Program:Printing a Line of Text • Comments • Document programs • Improve program readability • Ignored by compiler • Single-line comment • Begin with // • Preprocessor directives • Processed by preprocessor before compiling • Begin with #

    18. 1 // Fig. 1.2: fig01_02.cpp 2 // A first program in C++. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome to C++!\n"; 9 10 return0; // indicate that program ended successfully 11 12 } // end function main Function main returns an integer value. Preprocessor directive to include input/output stream header file <iostream>. Left brace { begins function body. Function main appears exactly once in every C++ program.. Statements end with a semicolon ;. Corresponding right brace } ends function body. Stream insertion operator. Single-line comments. Name cout belongs to namespace std. Keyword return is one of several means to exit function; value 0 indicates program terminated successfully. fig01_02.cpp(1 of 1)fig01_02.cppoutput (1 of 1) Welcome to C++!

    19. 1.21 A Simple Program:Printing a Line of Text • Standard output stream object • std::cout • “Connected” to screen • << • Stream insertion operator • Value to right (right operand) inserted into output stream • Namespace • std:: specifies using name that belongs to “namespace” std • std:: removed through use of using statements • Escape characters • \ • Indicates “special” character output

    20. 1.21 A Simple Program:Printing a Line of Text

    21. 1 // Fig. 1.4: fig01_04.cpp 2 // Printing a line with multiple statements. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome "; 9 std::cout << "to C++!\n"; 10 11 return0; // indicate that program ended successfully 12 13 } // end function main Multiple stream insertion statements produce one line of output. fig01_04.cpp(1 of 1)fig01_04.cppoutput (1 of 1) Welcome to C++!

    22. 1 // Fig. 1.5: fig01_05.cpp 2 // Printing multiple lines with a single statement 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome\nto\n\nC++!\n"; 9 10 return0; // indicate that program ended successfully 11 12 } // end function main Using newline characters to print on multiple lines. fig01_05.cpp(1 of 1)fig01_05.cppoutput (1 of 1) Welcome to C++!