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Quick Tour of Logic Synthesis. A Design Example. Outline. Simple Case Conversion Circuit First Refinement The Transform Block The Command Interpreter Technology Mapping. The LUNC Circuit. LUNC = “Lower case, Upper case, No change, or “ Change case ” case conversion circuit.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Simple Case Conversion Circuit
  • First Refinement
  • The Transform Block
  • The Command Interpreter
  • Technology Mapping
the lunc circuit
The LUNC Circuit

LUNC = “Lower case, Upper case, No change,

or “Change case” case conversion circuit

Case conversion Circuit

Simple CC

lunc interface
LUNC “Interface”

Input: 8-bit ASCII code of an

alphanumeric character

Output: Case conversion of the input character:

^[L => convert to Lower case

^[U => convert to Upper case

^[N => No conversion

^[C => Change case

Simple CC

lunc specification
LUNC Specification

Input string:

a b C d E f ^[ U a b C D …

Output string:

? ? a b C d E f ? ? A B C D …

^[L => convert to Lower case

^[U => convert to Upper case

^[N => No conversion

^[C => Change case

? => don’t care

Latency = 2

Simple CC

ascii codes and operation of change
ASCII Codes and operation of change

Hex

Note Only change is in bit 5, so

Code(a) = Code(A) +32

Simple CC

slide7

2 registers in datapath, so

latency is 2 cycles

Controller FSM

LUNC Block Diagram

Refinement

transform block
Transform Block

Behavioral Description ofcombinationallogic:

ProcedureTRANSFORM (Rin,Lcmd,Ucmd,Ncmd,Ccmd) {

if(Lcmd)

{mux = TOLOWER(Rin)}

else if(Ucmd)

{mux = TOUPPER(Rin)}

else if(Ncmd)

{mux} = Rin}

else if(Ccmd)

{mux} = CHANGECASE(Rin)

return(mux)

}

Transform Block

transform block1
Transform Block
  • Remarks
    • A relatively high level description is easy to read and write
    • Calling the output MUX suggests that we can translate the IF-THEN-ELSE statement into a multiplexer

Transform Block

transform block diagram
Transform Block Diagram

lower

upper

Simple translation

Change case

Transform Block

slide11

Transform Block Diagram

  • This implementation is clearly correct, but inelegant, since LC, UC, CC done every cycle
  • Synthesis tool reduces the chip areafrom 606 literals to 12 literals,if the don’t care conditions are specified
  • Then we show that a clever,but not so obviously correct,design can implement this function in 12 literalsdirectly.

Transform Block

the changecase block
The ChangeCase Block

Procedure CHANGECASE(Rin) {

if (isUC(Rin))

{res = Rin + 32}

else

{res = Rin - 32}

return (res)

}

Rin

isUC

/

8

res

+/-

32

/

8

Transform Block

slide13

The Optimized Transform Block

0-00 => 0 (UC)

1-00 => Rin5

0-10 => Rin5’

0-01 => 1 (LC)

Out

Modulo the “1-hot” don’t cares, script.rugged gets

Out = NcmdRin5+L+CcmdRin5’,

costing 5 lts (+7 “feedthrough” buffer lits makes 12)

Note Ucmd is implicit 0-00 => Ucmd=1

Transform Block

the command interpreter
The Command Interpreter

Decoder:

If previous character is escape,

and if Current input character is

L,U,N, or C, then the outputs

Lcmd, Ucmd,Ncmd, and Ccmd

are reset. Else they are Don’t Cares

Register

Latches

Decoder

Command Interpreter

slide15

The Command Interpreter

Procedure lunc? (Rin) {

if(Rin = L) Lcmd=1, Ucmd=Ncmd=Ccmd=0

else if (Rin = U) Ucmd=1, Lcmd=Ncmd=Ccmd=0

else if (Rin = N) Ncmd=1, Lcmd=Ucmd=Ccmd=0

else if (Rin = C) Ccmd=1, Lcmd=Ucmd=Ccmd=0

else Lcmd=Ucmd=Ncmd=Ccmd=Don't~Care

return (Lcmd, Ucmd, Ncmd, Ccmd)

}

Command Interpreter

comparison for equality
Comparison For Equality

A=B

A

7

B

7

A=escape=0x1b=27

A

7

A

0

A

0

B

0

distinguishing l u n c

Two Least significant bits

A1

A0

Distinguishing L,U,N,C

L = 0x4C = 01001100 = 74

U = 0x55 = 01010101 = 85

N = 0x4E = 01001110 = 78

C = 0x43 = 01000011 = 67

The last2 bits are sufficient for distinguishing L,U,N,C

Everything else is don’t care

Note isC not needed because

of the “One Hot” assumption

Command Interpreter

optimized command interpreter

0

>

0

>

0

>

1

0

1

0

1

0

Optimized Command Interpreter

in7,…,in1,in0

MUXs choose between current

isL, isN, isC and previous state

isESC

isL

oL

Delay of 1

isN

oN

1

>

isC

oC

Command Interpreter

slide19

TB

Only isEsc is

delayed

Overall Latency of 2

LUNC

x7

x0

o7

o0

i7

i0

b5

reg8

x5

reg8

x7,…x1,x0

Lcmd

Ncmd

Ccmd

CI

Command Interpreter

slide20

B

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

f

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

?

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

A

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

?

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

Esc:00011011,

U:01010101,

1,

1

0,

0,

a:01100001,

b:01100010

0,

1,

1,

0

1,

0,

0,

0

0,

1,

0,

0

Ncmd switches

from 1 to 0 on

10th clock tick

Final LUNC

E

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

Clock Tick: t=7, 8, 9, 10, 11

input: I=^[, U, a, b, C

b5

7

8

9

10

11

f:01100110,

TB

x5=1,

b5=1,

7,8, 9,10,11

isESC:0,

Lcmd

0,

Ncmd

Ccmd

LUNC Simulation

CI

Command Interpreter

technology mapping
Technology Mapping
  • Synthesis
    • Translation
    • Optimization
    • Technology mapping
  • Technology dependent
  • Technology independent

Technology Mapping

quick tour of logic synthesis1

Quick Tour of Logic Synthesis

Sungho Kang

Yonsei University