Interior Design Legislation Your right to practice!
Title vs Practice Act • Title Acts are laws that legislate the title of interior designer. In order to call yourself an interior designer, you may need certain requirements (varies by state) such as a FIDER education, NCIDQ exam and a specified number of years experience. • Practice Act is more stringent. This law stipulates who can practice interior design. • Question: Which state was the first to pass legislation?
Alabama was the first! • Title Act was in 1982 • Practice Act was in 2001 • Interior Designer and Registered Interior Designer • Must be from a FIDER/CIDA accredited school • 2 years experience
Update on Alabama Practice Act Justice Parker stated, "If the public interest is not threatened by allowing homeowners and businesspersons to design their own houses and offices, it is difficult to understand how that interest is threatened by allowing them to retain interior designers who are not certified." He concluded by saying: “Not only are [the appellee designer's] rights to contract and to engage in her chosen occupation at stake in this case, but also the rights of the people of Alabama to contract with her. If a homeowner or businessperson wants to express himself by decorating his home or his office in a certain way, and if that person believes [appellee designer] can best provide the design that he desires, the State should not tell that person that he may not contract with [appellee designer] merely because [appellee designer] lacks state certification or an academic degree. Nor should this Court embrace the paternalistic notion that the average citizen is incapable of choosing a competent interior designer without the State's help. The economic liberty of contract remains a protected right in Alabama, especially in a field like interior design that involves expressive activity." ”
Opposition to Legislation • AIA • NKBA • Institute of Justice • Interior Design Freedom Coalition • Decorators
Enforcing Legislation • State licensing board • Fines for each incident (not project)
CEU’s • Continuing Education Units • Ranges from 5 – 10 hours per year of additional education • Must be related to health, safety and welfare • Obtained thru ASID and IIDA and be IDCEC approved.
Chapter 2 Special Considerations in Design
Two Important Design Considerations • Design for special needs • ADA American with Disabilities Act of 1990 • Universal Design • Ambulatory impaired • Hearing impaired • Visual impaired • Elderly • Environmental Considerations • Waste • Air pollution • Light and energy
What is ADA? • The ADA is a federal civil law signed into legislation on July 26th, 1990 by President George Bush. • It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. • It is designed to make American society more accessible to persons with disabilities.
Background • The ADA laws became enforceable in 1992 and 1993. • The ADA is divided into 5 parts, regulating: • Employment • Public Services • Public Accommodations • Telecommunications • Miscellaneous
Part III: Public Accommodations • Refers mainly to accessibility requirement of public buildings including: • Hotels, restaurants, auditoriums, shopping centers, banks, hospitals, museums, libraries, educational facilities, child care centers, and recreational facilities • This is the section that we will focus on.
Myths and Facts about ADA • MYTH: ADA requires business to spend lots of money to make their existing facilities accessible. • FACT: ADA law requires that public accommodations remove architectural barriers in existing facilities when it is “readily achievable” (Can be done “without much difficulty or expense.” Easy steps include adding ramps, installing grab bars, lowering paper towel dispensers, rearranging furniture, installing offset hinges to widen a doorway, painting new lines to create an accessible parking space.
Myths and Facts about ADA • MYTH: The government thinks everything is “readily achievable”. • FACT: Not true: Installing elevators is not considered “readily achievable.” Maybe there isn’t room to add a ramp, the business could provide curb-side service.
Myths and Facts about ADA • MYTH: The ADA requires extensive renovation of all state and local government buildings to make them accessible. • FACT: The ADA requires all government programs, not buildings to be accessible. Not every building, nor each part of every building need to be accessible. Structural modifications are required only when there is no alternative available for providing program access. Example: A library has an inaccessible second floor. No elevator is needed if a staff member retrieves the books needed.
Myths and Facts about ADA • MYTH: Businesses must pay large fines when they violate the ADA • FACT: Courts may levy civil penalties only in cases brought by the Justice Department, not private litigants. The Department only seeks such penalties when the violation is substantial and the business has shown bad faith in failing to comply. The Department also considers a business’ size and resources in determining whether civil penalties are appropriate.
What is an accessible route? An accessible route is a continuous, unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and spaces in a building or facility. This includes pathways, corridors, doorways, floors, ramps, elevators and clear floor space at fixtures.
RAMPS • Clear width shall be 44” • Landings shall be at least 60” in length • Slope rise to run ratio of 1:12 • For every 30” rise, there should be an intervening flat area. • Handrails should extend 12” beyond the top and bottom ramp landings. • Handrails should have 1 ½” space between the handrail and wall.
Entrances, Exits, and Interior Routes • 36” Clear space beyond the latch side of the entrance door. • 12-18” clear space at latch side of interior doors. • 32” clear width on door openings. • Door hardware not higher than 48”. • Lever style door hardware. • Maximum opening force of 8.5 lbs on exterior hinged doors. • Maximum opening force of 5 lbs on interior doors. • Threshold not higher than ½” with beveled edge. • For two doors in a series, there must be 48” between the open doors. • Sweep period of door closing should be at least 3 seconds. • Signs must be provided to denote the accessible route. • Floor area inside and outside each door should be level for a distance of 5’ from the direction the door swings. • Doors should be identified with either raised or indented letters/ numerals which identify the area. • Doors signs should be placed between 4’-6” – 5’-6” AFF.
Obstructions • 80” clear headroom to avoid overhead hazards. (Includes alarms, and signs) • Routes should be clear of water fountains, pay phones and other protruding objects. Objects with their leading edges between 27 and 80” high shall not protrude more than 4” into the route. • Objects with their leading edge at 27” or below may protrude any amount as long as the route does not reduce pathway clearance below 36” wide. • One 60” x 60” passing space every 200 feet
Stairs • Uniform step heights from 4” - 7” high • Tread depths at 11” • No overhang greater than 1 ½” • Handrails extend 12” past last step
Restrooms • At least one restroom is provide on an accessible route. • Unobstructed 60” x 60” space for wheelchair turn around. • Toilet should be 18” from centerline to wall or adjacent partition. • Toilet seat should be 17”-20” high • Stall door shall be 32” clear • Standard accessible stall is 56” x 60” • Grab bars at 33” – 36” AFF and 36” or 42” wide • Lever style faucets • Hot/cold pipe (if exposed) shall be covered • Counter tops not higher than 34” AFF with at least 29” clearance from floor to top of apron. • Clear floor space in front of sink shall be 30” x 48” • Mirrors shall be mounted with the bottom edge mounted no higher than 40” AFF
Drinking Fountains • One drinking fountain for every 75 occupants. • Each floor must have it’s own fountain. • If available, 50% should be accessible on each floor. • If only one available, is it on an accessible route. • Spout shall be no higher than 36” AFF • Recessed fountains shall have 24” maximum side walls and 30” minimum width. • Clear floor space of 30’ x 48”
Universal Design • Design that meets the needs of all users without drawing attention to to persons with disabilities. • It is not the ADA. • Homes should be planned universally
Universal recommendations • Lever type handles • Hard surface flooring • Little to no thresholds (1/2” minimum) • Wider doors (32” clearance) • Level plan (no steps) • Varying counter top heights with kneespace in kitchen • Taller toe kick (12” vs 4”) • Reinforcing walls for future grab bars • Wheelchair Accessible shower • “D” shaped pulls on cabinets • Window sills at a min. of 36” AFF
Hearing Impaired • Reduce noise reverberation and improve acoustics. (carpet or fabric wall coverings, ceiling tiles) • Good lighting for lip reading and signing • Round tables are better than square or rectangular • Visual warning signs are needed. Telephone, doorbell, alarm clock, fire alarm, crying baby. • Special phone systems TDD (Telecommunication device for the deaf
Visual Impairment • Design around hearing and touch • Textured door handles to indicate danger • Landing and curbs that are textures • Handrails 1 foot beyond last step • Always consider protruding objects • Signage with Braille and audible signals • Rounded edges on furniture and counterops
Design for the Elderly • Limited mobility, loss of hearing, and loss of vision • Also, memory loss • Use visual contrast (depth perception) • Wayfinding • Yellowing of cornea • Incontinence
Challenge to Society “We stand at a crossroads. For the first time we face the prospect of irreversible changes in our planet’s life support systems. The growing human population and the by-products of our industrial and technological society threaten our planets air, water, climate and biodiversity. These threats present a challenge to our society – to learn to live in harmony with our planet.” The Center for Environmental Studies
Sustainable Design Definition Sustainable design, also referred to as green design, is the design of products and structures with sensitivity to health and the environment. Special consideration is placed on the impact of materials on the environment, not only in the conservation of natural resources, but also in the health of built environments to the individuals that occupy them.
Leading the way • Manufacturers and the design community can lead the way to easing the burden on our country’s landfills. • Through manufacturing processes • And disposal of products
The environmental impact • of building is significant. In the US alone, buildings represent • 65.2 % of electricity consumption • 30% of total greenhouse gas emissions • 136 million tons of construction and demolition waste • 33% of total waste in North America is from construction renovation and demolition of buildings.
The US is falling behind! • While efforts are increasing to conserve, America is falling way behind other countries • North America makes up 5% of the worlds population yet uses 25% of the worlds energy. • People are consuming the earth’s resources 20% faster than its ability to support renewal.
What does this mean? • It means that the US is not doing its part to be the world leader. • If China and other developing nations were to emulate America’s resource consumption and wasteful lifestyle, the world would plunge into a tremendous economic and environmental crisis.
New Energy Law • Bans incandescent light bulbs by 2014 • The phase-out of incandescent light is to begin with the 100-watt bulb in 2012 and end in 2014 with the 40-watt. • All light bulbs must use 25 percent to 30 percent less 2014. By 2020, bulbs must be 70 percent more efficient than they are today.
LEED Certification AIA Honolulu, LEED-CI Gold Intergen, LEED-CI Certified LEED is a voluntary, consensus-based national standard (1999) for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings. Members of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) representing all segments of the building industry developed LEED and continue to contribute to its evolution.
LEED was created to: • define "green building" by establishing a common standard of measurement • promote integrated, whole-building design practices • recognize environmental leadership in the building industry • stimulate green competition • raise consumer awareness of green building benefits • transform the building market
LEED focuses on • Sustainable sites • Water efficiency • Energy and atmosphere • Materials and resources • Indoor environmental air quality • Innovation and design process