4 subfields of anthropology n.
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4 SUBFIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY. BIOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY LINGUISTIC SOCIO-CULTURAL. CHIEF MEANS OF ADAPTATION FOR HUMANS IS CULTURE. SOCIO-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY IS. HOLISTIC—all the sub-systems of a culture are related as a single system

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4 subfields of anthropology
4 SUBFIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY
  • BIOLOGICAL
  • ARCHAEOLOGY
  • LINGUISTIC
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL
socio cultural anthropology is
SOCIO-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY IS
  • HOLISTIC—all the sub-systems of a culture are related as a single system
  • COMPARATIVE-understand each example in terms of all the others
  • ETHNOGRAPHIC-know by doing fieldwork
principle method is
PRINCIPLE METHOD IS

ETHNOGRAPHY

FIELDWORK

PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION

cultural relativity
CULTURAL RELATIVITY

ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND IDEAS,

PRACTICES, AND VALUES OF OTHER

PEOPLES IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR

OWN CULTURES RATHER THAN OUR

OWN

1)Descriptive relativity – suspending judgement to impartially report

2) Ethical relativity – viewing a culture through their perspective

3) Epistemological relativity – all ways of knowing are equal

---OR ARE THEY?

ethnocentrism
ETHNOCENTRISM

Thinking your own culture is the best

important terms
Important Terms

Agency

Variable

Independent variable

Interdependent variables

Self-intensifying loops

slide12

Anthropology of Iceland

Images of Contemporary Iceland

Icelandic Essays

Dynamics of Medieval Iceland

Iceland

process of fieldwork utilizing the scientific method
PROCESS OF FIELDWORK (utilizing the scientific method)
  • THINK OF A HYPOTHESIS IN TERMS OF A THEORY

E.G. SHAN PEASANTS PRODUCE ENOUGH FOR THEIR HOUSEHOLDS BUT NOT MUCH MORE--

THEORY OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION

slide16
E.G. STUDIES OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SHOW THAT THE LESS CENTRALIZED THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS, THE MORE PEOPLE PARTICIPATE AND THE MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT IS.

HYPOTHESIS: IN LESS CENTRALIZED UNIONS, PEOPLE PARTICIPATE MORE AND THE UNION IS MORE EFFECTIVE

slide17
WRITE A PROPOSAL IN WHICH YOU EXPLAIN THE THEORY, THE HYPOTHESIS, AND WHY EACH ONE IS IMPORTANT AND EXACTLY WHAT YOU PROPOSE TO DO [EVEN THOUGH YOU KNOW AND THEY KNOW IT NEVER HAPPENS THAT WAY]
  • DEVELOP A BUDGET AND TIME-LINE
  • SEND THE PROPOSAL TO GRANTING AGENCIES SUCH AS NSF
slide18
GET APPROVAL FROM IRB
  • WAIT
  • IF THE GRANTING AGENCY LIKES THE IDEA, THEY GIVE YOU SOME MONEY
  • DO WHAT YOU SAID YOU’D DO—AS CLOSELY AS YOU CAN—E.G. YOU MAY NOT BE ABLE TO GET RANDOM SAMPLES—IMPROVISE—LISTEN TO PEOPLE; UNDERSTAND WHAT THEY’RE SAYING IN THEIR TERMS
slide19
REVISE THE THEORY AND HYPOTHESES TO FIT WHAT YOU OBSERVE

—EMPIRICISM MEANS YOU MAKE YOUR IDEAS CONFORM TO THE FACTS; YOU DON’T MAKE THE FACTS CONFORM TO YOUR IDEAS

--DEVELOP NEW METHODS TO FIT THE SITUATIONS YOU FACE

slide20
WRITE ABOUT METHODS AND FINDINGS AND TALK ABOUT THEM AT MEETINGS OF ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND OTHER INTERESTED PEOPLE

— FOR INSTANCE, FISHERIES MANAGERS, FISHERS, UNION MEMBERS, UNION LEADERS

slide21
LISTEN TO WHAT OTHER ANTHROPOLOGISTS ARE SAYING ABOUT THEIR WORK
  • PUT YOUR FINDINGS IN WIDER COMPARATIVE CONTEXTS OF OTHER FINDINGS FROM OTHER CULTURES
  • INCORPORATE NEW THEORIES AND METHODS
  • REPEAT FROM BEGINNING
scientific research
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
  • IS SELF-CORRECTIVE—IF OBSERVATIONS DON’T MATCH OUR IDEAS, WE CHANGE OUR IDEAS UNTIL OBSERVATIONS DO MATCH OUR IDEAS.