Chapter 10 - Six Sigma

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Chapter 10 - Six Sigma. Statistics (DPU, dpmo, off-centering), DMAIC, Tools, 5S’s. Six Sigma Evolution. Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola ( Bill Smith ) Migrated to Allied Signal Picked up by General Electric Commitment by CEO Jack Welch

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### Chapter 10 - Six Sigma

Statistics (DPU, dpmo, off-centering), DMAIC, Tools, 5S’s

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Six Sigma Evolution
• Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola (Bill Smith)
• Migrated to Allied Signal
• Picked up by General Electric
• Commitment by CEO Jack Welch
• Grown to be an integrated strategy for attaining extremely high levels of quality

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Statistics - DPU
• Defect
• Six Sigma: “any mistake or error passed on to the customer” ???
• General view: any variation from specifications
• DPU (defects per unit)
• Number of defects per unit of work
• Ex: 3 lost bags ÷ 8,000 customers

= .00375

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Statistics – dpmo (defects per million opportunities)
• Process may have more than one opportunity for error (e.g., airline baggage)
• dpmo = (DPU × 1,000,000) ÷ opportunities

for error

• Ex: (3 lost bags × 1,000,000) ÷ (8,000 customers × 1.6 average bags)

= 234.375

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Statistics – dpmo (cont’d)
• May extend the concept to include higher level processes
• E.g., may consider all opportunities for errors for a flight (from ticketing to baggage claim)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Statistics - Off-Centering
• Represents a shift in the process mean
• Impossible to always keep the process mean the same (this WOULD be perfection)
• Does NOT represent a change in specifications
• Control of shift within ± 1.5 σ of the target mean keeps defects to a maximum of 3.4 per million

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Statistics - Off-Centering (cont’d)Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

k-Sigma Quality Levels
• Number of defects per million
• For a specified off-centering and
• a quality levels

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

k-Sigma Quality Levels Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Problem: “Is” ≠ “Should be”
• Problem solving may be seeking:
• Continuous incremental (kaizen)
• Breakthrough (hoshin)
• Common elements among pioneers
• Redefine and analyze the problem
• Generate ideas (tool: brainstorming)
• Evaluate and select idea(s)
• Implement idea(s)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Six Sigma Project Teams
• Champion – high level sponsor
• Master black belt – full time expert
• Black belt – fully trained (< 160 hrs.) expert
• Green belt – trained in introductory tools and methodology
• Team member – selected from functional areas impacted to support project

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

DMAIC
• Main problem solving methodology for 6
• Define
• Measure
• Analyze
• Improve
• Control

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - List
• Elementary statistical tools
• Advanced statistical tools
• Product design and reliability
• Measurement
• Process control
• Process improvement
• Implementation and teamwork

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 1
• Elementary statistical tools
• Basic statistics
• Statistical thinking
• Hypothesis testing
• Correlation
• Simple regression

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 2
• Advanced statistical tools
• Design of experiments
• Analysis of variance
• Multiple regression

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 3
• Product design and reliability
• Quality function deployment (QFD)
• Failure mode
• Effects analysis

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 4
• Measurement
• Process capability
• Measurement systems analysis

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 5
• Process control
• Control plans (Cp and Cpk)
• Statistical process control (SPC)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 6
• Process improvement
• Process improvement methodology
• Process improvement planning
• Process mapping
• Mistake proofing or failsafing (Poka-Yoke)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Tools & Techniques - 7
• Implementation and Teamwork
• Organizational effectiveness
• Team assessment
• Facilitation tools
• Team development

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Design for 6 - DFSS
• Complex engineering methodology
• Features use of:
• High-level architectural view
• CTQs (“critical to quality” characteristics)
• Technical requirements clearly specified
• Modeling and simulation approaches
• Prediction of defects and performance
• Variation analysis of subsystems and components

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Six  in Service Organizations
• More recent than in manufacturing
• 50%+ of savings in non-manufacturing
• New term: “transactional Six Sigma”
• Main measures:
• Accuracy
• Cycle time
• Cost
• Customer satisfaction

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Lean Operations and 6
• The 5 S’s
• Seiri (sort)
• Seiton (set in order)
• Seiso (shine)
• Seiketsu (standardize)
• Shitsuke (sustain)
• Visual controls
• Efficient layout and standardized work

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

Lean Operations and 6 (cont’d)
• Pull production
• Single minute exchange of dies (SMED)
• Total productive maintenance
• Source inspection
• Continuous improvement

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley