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Chapter 10 - Six Sigma. Statistics (DPU, dpmo, off-centering), DMAIC, Tools, 5S’s. Six Sigma Evolution. Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola ( Bill Smith ) Migrated to Allied Signal Picked up by General Electric Commitment by CEO Jack Welch

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chapter 10 six sigma

Chapter 10 - Six Sigma

Statistics (DPU, dpmo, off-centering), DMAIC, Tools, 5S’s

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

six sigma evolution
Six Sigma Evolution
  • Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola (Bill Smith)
  • Migrated to Allied Signal
  • Picked up by General Electric
    • Commitment by CEO Jack Welch
    • Grown to be an integrated strategy for attaining extremely high levels of quality

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpu
Statistics - DPU
  • Defect
    • Six Sigma: “any mistake or error passed on to the customer” ???
    • General view: any variation from specifications
  • DPU (defects per unit)
    • Number of defects per unit of work
    • Ex: 3 lost bags ÷ 8,000 customers

= .00375

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpmo defects per million opportunities
Statistics – dpmo (defects per million opportunities)
  • Process may have more than one opportunity for error (e.g., airline baggage)
  • dpmo = (DPU × 1,000,000) ÷ opportunities

for error

  • Ex: (3 lost bags × 1,000,000) ÷ (8,000 customers × 1.6 average bags)

= 234.375

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpmo cont d
Statistics – dpmo (cont’d)
  • May extend the concept to include higher level processes
    • E.g., may consider all opportunities for errors for a flight (from ticketing to baggage claim)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

statistics off centering
Statistics - Off-Centering
  • Represents a shift in the process mean
  • Impossible to always keep the process mean the same (this WOULD be perfection)
  • Does NOT represent a change in specifications
  • Control of shift within ± 1.5 σ of the target mean keeps defects to a maximum of 3.4 per million

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

slide7
Statistics - Off-Centering (cont’d)Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

k sigma quality levels
k-Sigma Quality Levels
  • Number of defects per million
    • For a specified off-centering and
    • a quality levels

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

k sigma quality levels source evans lindsay the management and control of quality southwestern 2005
k-Sigma Quality Levels Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

problem is should be
Problem: “Is” ≠ “Should be”
  • Problem solving may be seeking:
    • Continuous incremental (kaizen)
    • Breakthrough (hoshin)
  • Common elements among pioneers
    • Redefine and analyze the problem
    • Generate ideas (tool: brainstorming)
    • Evaluate and select idea(s)
    • Implement idea(s)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

six sigma project teams
Six Sigma Project Teams
  • Champion – high level sponsor
  • Master black belt – full time expert
  • Black belt – fully trained (< 160 hrs.) expert
  • Green belt – trained in introductory tools and methodology
  • Team member – selected from functional areas impacted to support project

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

dmaic
DMAIC
  • Main problem solving methodology for 6
  • Define
  • Measure
  • Analyze
  • Improve
  • Control

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques list
Tools & Techniques - List
  • Elementary statistical tools
  • Advanced statistical tools
  • Product design and reliability
  • Measurement
  • Process control
  • Process improvement
  • Implementation and teamwork

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 1
Tools & Techniques - 1
  • Elementary statistical tools
    • Basic statistics
    • Statistical thinking
    • Hypothesis testing
    • Correlation
    • Simple regression

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 2
Tools & Techniques - 2
  • Advanced statistical tools
    • Design of experiments
    • Analysis of variance
    • Multiple regression

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 3
Tools & Techniques - 3
  • Product design and reliability
    • Quality function deployment (QFD)
    • Failure mode
    • Effects analysis

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 4
Tools & Techniques - 4
  • Measurement
    • Process capability
    • Measurement systems analysis

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 5
Tools & Techniques - 5
  • Process control
    • Control plans (Cp and Cpk)
    • Statistical process control (SPC)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 6
Tools & Techniques - 6
  • Process improvement
    • Process improvement methodology
    • Process improvement planning
    • Process mapping
    • Mistake proofing or failsafing (Poka-Yoke)

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

tools techniques 7
Tools & Techniques - 7
  • Implementation and Teamwork
    • Organizational effectiveness
    • Team assessment
    • Facilitation tools
    • Team development

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

design for 6 dfss
Design for 6 - DFSS
  • Complex engineering methodology
  • Features use of:
    • High-level architectural view
    • CTQs (“critical to quality” characteristics)
      • Technical requirements clearly specified
    • Modeling and simulation approaches
    • Prediction of defects and performance
    • Variation analysis of subsystems and components

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

six in service organizations
Six  in Service Organizations
  • More recent than in manufacturing
  • 50%+ of savings in non-manufacturing
  • New term: “transactional Six Sigma”
  • Main measures:
    • Accuracy
    • Cycle time
    • Cost
    • Customer satisfaction

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

lean operations and 6
Lean Operations and 6
  • The 5 S’s
    • Seiri (sort)
    • Seiton (set in order)
    • Seiso (shine)
    • Seiketsu (standardize)
    • Shitsuke (sustain)
  • Visual controls
  • Efficient layout and standardized work

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley

lean operations and 6 cont d
Lean Operations and 6 (cont’d)
  • Pull production
  • Single minute exchange of dies (SMED)
  • Total productive maintenance
  • Source inspection
  • Continuous improvement

SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley