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外科学绪论 Introduction of Surgery. 一、现代外科学的发展 Development of Modern Surgery. 解剖学 Anatomy. John Hunter (1728-1793), the father of experimental surgery and a superb anatomist and teacher. 麻醉 Anesthesia.

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development of modern surgery
一、现代外科学的发展Development of Modern Surgery
  • 解剖学 Anatomy

John Hunter (1728-1793), the father of experimental surgery and a superb anatomist and teacher.

麻醉 Anesthesia

Willam t.G. Morton (1819-1868), a Boston dentist whose successful demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, at the Massachusetts Gneeral Hospital was a landmark in the history of surgery

输血 Blood transfusion

Richard Lewisohn (1875-1961), a surgeon at the Mount Sinai Hospital, introduced the modern technique of blood transfusion, developed from his discovery of a method of preventing coagulation of the blood outside the body.

Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943), one of the first scientists to study the physical processes of immunity. He is best known for his identification and characterization of the human blood groups, A, B, and O.


Innovators & Pioneers in Surgery

Theodor Kocher (1841-1917), professor of surgery at the University of Berne and pioneer in the development of surgery of the thyoid. He received the Nobel Prize in 1909.

Theodor Billroth (1829-1894), professor at the University of Vienna and pioneer abdominal surgeon, Billroth was one of the most influential teachers of his time.


John H. Gibbon (1903-1973), pioneer cardiothoracic surgeon who developed extracorporeal circulation.

Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), an experimental surgeon interested in wound healing, tissue culture, organ transplantation, and blood vessel anastomosis. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912.




The role of SSMU in the development

of surgery in China

1954 二尖瓣分离 Commissurotomy of mitral stenosis

1958 大面积灼伤 Severe Burn

1963 断肢再植 Replantation of cut limb

1977 肝移植 The 1st case of Liver transplantation

1978 心脏移植 The 1st case of Heart transplantation

1990s- 二医外科全面发展

  • 灼伤外科、消化外科、胆胰外科

Burn surg, Digestive S., P. Biliary

  • 口腔外科、整形外科、小儿心脏外科

Stomatological S. Plastic S. Pediatric Cardio S.

category of surgery
二、外科学范畴Category of Surgery
  • 外科疾病分类

Classification of Surgical Diseases

1) 损伤Trauma

— mechanical thermal

chemical electrical……

2) 感染Infection

3) 肿瘤Neoplasia Benign, Malignant

4) 畸形Anatomical abnormalities

Congenital, Acquired

5) 内分泌功能失调Metabolic & Hormonal disorder

6) 梗塞与缺血Infarction & Ischamia

7) 其它Others

梗阻 Obstruction

寄生虫病 Parasite diseases

静脉曲张 Vein varicose

2 development of surgical specialties
2. 外科专业发展Development of Surgical Specialties
  • 工作对象和性质

实验外科 Eexperimental Surgery

临床外科 Clinical Surgery

2) 人体解剖系统

骨科 Arthrosteopedic surgery

颌面外科 Dentofacial surgery

心胸外科 Cardiothoracic surgery

泌尿外科 Urologic surgery

神经外科 Neurosurgery

普通外科 General surgery

(腹部外科) Abdominal surgery

3) 性病性质

肿瘤外科 Neoplastic surgery

急症外科 Emergency surgery

创伤外科 Trauma surgery

烧伤外科 Burn surgery

4) 手术方式

整复外科 Plastic surgery

显微外科 Microsurgery

移植外科 Transplantation

微创外科 Minimally invasive surgery

5) 年龄

小儿外科 Pediatric Surgery

成人外科 Adult Surgery

6) 专业

妇科 Gynecology

耳鼻喉科 Otolaryngology

眼科 Ophthalmology

3 general surgery special surgery
3. 外科总论与各论General Surgery & Special Surgery

外科学总论 General Surgery



外科学各论 Special Surgery



● 外科分子生物学

Surgical molecular biology

● 外科免疫学

Surgical immunology

● 无菌术

Aseptic technique

● 外科水、电解质和酸碱平衡

Fluid and electrolyte management

and acid-base balance

● 输血

Blood transfusion

●外科休克 Surgical shock

●外科营养 Surgical nutrition


Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS

●麻醉 Anesthesia


Surgical intensive care


Brain-cardiopulmonary Resuscitation


Pain management & Analgesia


Paraoperative management

●门诊外科 Outpatient surgery

●外科感染 Surgical infection

●肿瘤 Neoplasma

●创伤 Trauma

●烧伤与冷伤 Burns & Cold injury

●显微外科 Microsurgery

●器官移植 Organ transplantation

●组织工程 Tissue engineering

●腔镜外科 Laparoscopic & thorascopic surgery

●内镜外科 Endoscopic surgery

●外科介入治疗 Surgical intervention treatment

how to learn surgery
三、如何学习外科 How to learn surgery

●外科医师的职业道德 Moral Character

●理论联系实践 Theory and Practice

●外科基础 Basic theory

Basic knowledge

Basic technique

some figure of speech about the basic demands
形象化的要求Some figure of speech about the basic demands

Spunk of tiger — 胆大

Eyes of eagle — 眼明

Heart of mother — 心细

Hands of women — 手巧

学 问

- Learn to find questions

- Learn to ask questions

- Learn to solve questions

Books are you best teachers

Library is your best school


Now, you may have a good start

- why to learn

- how to learn

Well begun, half done.